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Week Two Notes

by: KatieAlbritton

Week Two Notes Hst 270

GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover Dr. Spaulding's lecture on the Cold War division of Europe between 1945-1955 and Dr. Chen's lecture on the reemergence of Japan after World War II.
The Cold War Era: An International History
Yixin Chen, W. Taylor Fain, Mark Spaulding
Class Notes
world war II, Cold War, Division of Europe, Iron Curtain, Economics, united states, Soviet Union, Japan, NATO, Marshall Plan
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hst 270 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Yixin Chen, W. Taylor Fain, Mark Spaulding in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see The Cold War Era: An International History in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Week Two Notes: Division (1945­1955) AND Reemergence of Japan and the Rise of East Asia Katie Albritton Study Soup Division, 1945­1955 Spaulding  Communist Bloc v. Capitalist Bloc West and East Berlin US, UK, France USSR Berlin Wall Germany divided in similar manner Europe divided 1945­55 Iron Curtain; stayed for decades Non­European division First Issue Poland Soviets begin Sovietizing Poland; US disapproves Origins of the Cold War US wants to restore global prosperity No tariffs Tariffs lead to economic depression Depression → Dictators → War Liberal international capitalism Democracy → Peace Stalin wants security for the Soviet Union Move borders Keep territory gained in World War II Baltics, part of Poland Military second to none Friendly neighbors Soviet puppets or simply non­hostile nations? Germany disarmed United States out of Europe Not gonna happen Britain and France weak Capitalism in crisis Does not happen Communist View  Planned economy v Market economy  One party dictatorship Loyalty to the Soviet Union Some break away Yugoslavia Poland Yalta Conference, 1945 Declaration of Free Europe Interim government in Poland Free elections Government of National Unity Soviets begin sovietizing Poland Breakdown of what was settled at Yalta within less than a year Polish resurgency Takes years to snuff out US begins to whine No longer lending money for reconstruction to Poland Cut off aid to Poland Germany Stakes high Cannot be fully controlled by any one nation Too militarily and technologically strong Potsdam Conference Four occupation zones Ally control council  Year of Stagnation, 1945­1946 Soviet and french in no hurry to revive Germany Americans oppose: Need Germany to revive the European economy Soviets begin to sovietize their zone September 1946 Americans announce change in policy Rescue western zones Wall them off from Eastern penetration Americans not leaving Germany Unify economy of western zones British agree, French do not at first Begin building separate West Germany Bizonia Currency reform: DM Forced French to merge 1948 Trizonia Marshall Plan Austria Neutralized 1955 Kruschev Marshall Plan June 1947: Offered Fit with US aims for global peace Stimulated by problems in 1947 UK balance of payments US lent over $4 billion 1945: gone by 1947 Colonies no longer buy British manufactured goods German raw materials and investment Dollar gap Germany needs to buy food, sell finished goods Trade Get Italian and French economies going Kick out Italian and French communists Had been backbone of resistance to Germans  $13 billion in value 2% of US GDP Aid conditional Sign on to American vision of the new world order Free trade, reduced tariffs, transparency Pretty flexible Case by case European transparency and cooperation Send stuff, not money Merchandise deliveries, sold to own people in local currency Marshall Plan stamp Common Plan (CEEC) Now OECD Accept Germans Surprise, Stalin! Americans are staying in Europe NATO Long term stimuli to NATO Talk of Alliance Britain, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg Spring 1948 Final Communist takeover in the east Czechoslovakia Push Prime Minister out of a window Kills him Soviet attempt to cut off Berlin Prevented road access Air­lift supplies to city June 1948­ May 1949 Note from Norway To British What help from you if the Soviets attack our tiny border with them? Dude, we don't have the money. Sorry bro.  Ask Americans for help with security Snowballing Get Americans, British, Canadians Then rest of Europe 1949 NATO treaty Article 5 An attack against one is an attack against all Empire by Invitation Can stay out of Marshall Plan if you want Eastern Europe did West Germany Let them have their own army With restrictions In NATO Reemergence of Japan and the Rise of East Asia Chen Economic Reemergence What did the US want Japan to be and why was this objective changed? Did the Japanese create a unique model for economic growth? Was the rise of East Asia set to a Japanese model? Post­war East Asia Yalta Conference US interests in China Inside Great Wall Soviet interests in Manchuria Railways Independence of Mongolia 1945 Chinese not happy Independence of Korea Japanese colony Cairo Conference, Nov. 1943 Japanese control brutal Trusteeship as transitional period US, UK, USSR, China Division of Korea, 1945 US gets South Korea USSR gets North Korea General election in five years Korea is still divided Potsdam Declaration on Japan, July 26, 1945 Occupation by allied powers Territory: back to Meiji Japan Does not include Okinawa Becomes part 1972 Had to pay reparations Little heavy industry No military development Steel production not allowed over 2.5 million tons Chinese Civil War 1946­1949 Communists v Nationalists Mao ze Dong Communist victory Korean War 1950­1953 Communist North invades South American Occupation, 1945­1952 USSR in the north US in Tokyo, middle region UK in the south China has some small islands along west coast Britain and China unable to maintain Soviets pull out General Douglas MacArthur Supreme Commander of Allied Powers SCAP “Blue­eyed Shogun” Letters from citizens asking for help “Oriental mind” Understands the oriental mind? Good at getting what he wants Three D policy Demilitarization Decentralization Democratization Punishing War Criminals 28 Class A war criminals Most imprisoned for life 8 executed, including Tojo Hideki 220,000 ineligible for office Dissolving Zaibatsu, 1946 Large, family based companies Monopolies Money clique: Conglomerate Force Japan to be aggressive? Seek natural resources Imposing Constitution, 1947 Written by Americans Done in a month Diet (parliament) Emperor Symbol of the state Unity of the people Only ritual significance Article 9, “Peace Article” The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation  Self­Defense Force No maintained war­potential army EVER “Peace Constitution” Economic significance Invest money on economy Not military Land Reform, 1947­48 7.5 acres Eliminating economic inequality  Education Reform Remove jingoistic language in textbooks Add liberal ideas  The “Reverse Course” 1947­1948 Strengthen Japan to be a Cold War ally Relaxation of restrictions on Japan “Red Purge” 1949 April Arrest Communist leaders in Japan The Korean War America's strategic partner in East Asia  Independence, 1952 End American occupation  Respect for military aid Liberal Democratic Party, LDP, 1955 Liberal and democratic Parties merge Conservative Kishi Nobosuke, PM 1957­1960 Class A war criminal Resigned 1960 Agreed to allow US to send them nuclear weapons People protested, a student died Japanese Prime Ministers There have been 30 Many resign early due to scandal Sex, money to the Yakuza (Japanese mafia) Economic Development  First Phase, 1945­1952: Recovery Second Phase, 1953­1972: Miracle Post war GNP growth rate 1993­1960: 9.7% 1960­1972: 10% US: 2.4% World's largest producers of iron, textiles, ships, and steel Steel Production growth 1950: 5 million tons 1969: 82 million tons Hayato Ikeda: PM 1960 “Double the national income” Forget sad past, focus on economy to improve standard of living 1972: Third largest global economy Third Phase, 1973­1985: High Tech 1973 Oil crisis From oil consuming to oil saving Electronics, tvs, computers Car production 1953: less than 15,000 1981: 11.1 million 54% exported Good gas mileage Fourth Phase, 1986­1991: Super Economic Power 1985, surpasses the Soviet Union Trade wars with US and Western Europe Development of domestic market Fifth Phase, 1991­ Present: Recession Homelessness Bubble Economy Size of economy 1945: 1% of the US 2000: 65% of the US Everything is expensive Efficiency of Economy Twice as efficient as the US Interpretations American Aid Important initially Aid 1950­1953: $1 billion New technology US opened market to Japan Low Military Budget Cold War Years US: 4.5% GNP USSR: 19% GNP Americans guarantee Japanese security  US Okinawa Military Base  Government Guided Economy 1956: MITI Ministry of International Trade and Industry  Planned economy is in fashion Monitoring information, instruction, financial assistance  Unique Business Organization: Keiretsu Enterprise group Run like a family Company loyalty Similar business goals Reduce higher­up salary Devoted employees Has own bank Money lent to employees at almost 0% interest Lifetime employment Importance of Education High high school graduation rates East Asia Tigers Family tradition Family power and domination of political areana Taiwan, Korea, Signapore Hong Kong, British colony, British economy  Authoritarianism S. Korea, Taiwan, Singapore State capitalism Hong Kong Laissez­faire capitalism S. Korea and Taiwan Export­oriented industrialization Singapore and Hong Kong Entrepot Confucian Capitalism Paternalism, strong state­guided 


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