Week One Notes
Week One Notes Hst 270
Popular in The Cold War Era: An International History
Popular in History
HST 103 - 002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hst 270 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Yixin Chen, W. Taylor Fain, Mark Spaulding in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see The Cold War Era: An International History in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Week One Notes: The USA at the Pinnacle of World Power, 19451965 Katie Albritton Study Soup Major Topics 1. How the US became more deeply involved in global affairs than ever before in its history 2. The United States' unparalleled wealth and prosperity in the postwar era 3. Persistent social problems, especially the issue of African American civil rights, and how they shaped international perceptions of the US Major factors Shaping the United States' Postwar Behavior 1. Determination to avoid mistakes made during the post WWI era 2. Avoid a return of the Great Depression 3. Preserve most of the institutions and values of Roosevelt's New Deal State ◦ Active energetic government ◦ Benefits for all Americans Postwar era started off very uncertain High unemployment Rising costs inflation High layoffs US troops returning from the war 7 million men and women released from military service Office of Price Administration closed Prices driven higher by postwar demand Upset labor movements 1956: the year of labor unrest Protests, strikes, walking out of jobs Want higher wages Arthur Schlesinger Jr. 1949 The Vital Center Centrist, pragmatic liberalism to guide American life in postwar era American capitalism is a good thing Won WWII Harnessed for public good US needed to play an active role in the world in postwar era Stand up to Stalin and Soviet Union Liberal Anticommunism Emergence of the Cold War Stalin's aspirations in Europe US combats/contains Communism Fear of Soviets filling power gap in Europe Possibility of war? Don't want to be a garrison state, armed to the teeth for war George F. Kennan Containment Contain Soviet power beyond immediate periphery Longterm strategy Accomplished through political and economic means “Cold War” Ideological, political, economic conflict Conflicts over Turkey, Iran, Greece, Eastern Europe Truman Doctrine, March 1947 Aid to Greece and Turkey Resist Communism US will aid any government attempting to fight Communism Dollar gap Europe struggling to buy goods George Marshall June 1947 European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan) Gives dollars to Europe Keep Communism out of Europe Bretton Woods Conference, New Hampshire, 1944 World Bank (IBRD) International Monetary Fund (IMF) Help create conditions of prosperity in the world Discourage war Benefit American economy, trade Woodrow Wilson Avoid his mistakes No return to isolation Sponsor creation of UN in 1945 to replace league of nations Oversee establishment of new global economic order Rebuild wartime allies and enemies alike No debts or reparations Direct government to government aid rather than reliance on private economic actors 1949 Mao Zedong Proclaims People's Republic of China 1950 Korean War 19501953 Fear of becoming “garrison state” Dwight Eisenhower 1953 “New Look” Emphasized technological superiority Strategic airpower Fear of nuclear war Nuclear deterrence Big freaking game of chicken Loss of Colonial Empires Development of third world Africa, South America, India, South Asia, Caribbean Fear of socialist revolutionaries Contain revolutionary movements 1952 US supports French attempt to recover Indochinese colonies Overthrow leftist 1953 Iranian government 1954 Guatemala government Patrice Lumumba and the independent Congo Leftist leader Cuba: Fidel Castro and Che Guevara Communist, antiAmerican What's Going on at Home? US is prospering Unemployment below 5% Inflation at 3%, stable High standard of living Why? American savings: consumer demand up Government spending Social security GI Bill Acceptance of Keynesian economics John Maynard Keynes Government active in the economy Military Keynesianism Massive military spending Guns and Butter Military and public spending Europe in Ruins US relatively untouched Lending money Political Consequences Homogenizing effect More conscious of similarities than differences Liberal Consensus Stick to vital center Max individual freedom Necessary centralized government power Eisenhower Preserve most of New Deal Age of Affluence Shaped how US related to the world Jim Crow Alive and Well Racial issues 1944 Gunner Mydral An American Dilemma How can America reconcile creed and behavior? Hypocrisy Liberty, equality Unless you're African American Period of Second Reconstruction Civil Rights Movement International ramifications NAACP challenge to segregation Dean Acheson, Secretary of State Racial discrimination is an embarrassment Hard to lead moral free world in this state Brown v Board of Education Victory, 1954 Desegregate public schools Good! MLK visits Ghana in 1957 to celebrate it's independence Nonviolent civil disobedience 1964 MLK Nobel Peace Prize 1964 Great Society Programs President Johnson Responsibility of government 1964 Civil Rights Act Desegregation of all public spaces Good Times Come to an End Vietnam War Compromise Great Society Tarnish reputation Costly overextension of containment Bad for American economy High inflation in the 1970s
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