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Anatomical Chapter One Notes

by: Alexa_Nelson

Anatomical Chapter One Notes 10603

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > PHIL-Philosophy > 10603 > Anatomical Chapter One Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover the material Dr. Mitchell assigned to us for Chapter one in our textbook.
Anatomical Kinesiology
Dr. Mitchell
Class Notes
anatomy, Kinesiology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa_Nelson on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10603 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Anatomical Kinesiology in PHIL-Philosophy at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Anatomical Kinesiology – Chapter One: Foundations Notes from Figures: 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 1.10, 1.11, Table 1.1 and pages 2-19 1.1 Microscopic Anatomy  Definition: considers structures that cannot be seen without magnification  The boundaries of microscopic anatomy (called fine anatomy) are established by the limits of the equipment used.  Subdivisions include: o Cytology: internal structure of cells o Histology: examines tissues (four types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and neural) – groups of tissues = organs (heart, brain, kidney etc.) 1.2 Gross Anatomy  Definition: examination of relatively large structures and features visible to the naked eye (also referred to as macroscopic anatomy)  Ways to approach it o Surface Anatomy: study of general form(morphology) and superficial anatomical markings o Regional Anatomy: all superficial and internal features in specific area of body (head, neck, trunk). Emphasizes spatial relationships among structures o Systemic Anatomy: major organ systems – groups of organs that function together to produce coordinated effects (cardiovascular system – heart, blood, and blood vessels) 1.3 Other Perspectives on Anatomy  Developmental Anatomy: o Definition: examines changes in form that occur during the period between conception and physical maturity o Study of both microscopic and gross anatomy o Structural abnormalities can be seen/studied here – most extensive = first two months of development o Embryology: study of early developmental processes  Comparative Anatomy: o Definition: anatomical organization of different types of animals o May reflect evolutionary relationships (vertebrates) o Uses gross, microscopic, and developmental anatomy  Clinical Anatomy: o Definition: anatomical features that may undergo recognizable pathological changes during illness  Surgical Anatomy: o Definition: studies anatomical landmarks important for surgical procedures  Radiographic Anatomy: o Definition: Study of anatomical structures as they are seen by x-rays, ultrasound  Cross – Sectional Anatomy: o Definition: New subspecialty of gross anatomy (using CT scans, spiral scans) 1.4 Levels of Organization  Start with chemical/molecular level: o Figure 1.3a - Composition of Body at the Chemical Level  62% Hydrogen  26% Oxygen  10% Carbon  1.5 % Nitrogen o Figure 1.3b – Molecular composition of the body  66% water  20% proteins  10% lipids  3% carbohydrates  Figure 1.4 - Levels of Organization o Chemical/Molecular Levels –atoms interact to form molecules, molecules join to form complex contractile protein fibers, contractile protein fibers are structures within a heart muscle cell. o Cellular Level – Interlocking heart muscle cells form cardiac muscle tissue o Tissue Level – cardiac muscle tissue constitutes the bulk of the walls of the heart o Organ Level – The heart is a complex 3-D organ o Organ System Level – ex. Cardiovascular system o Organism Level – All of the organ systems working together 1.5 An Introduction to Organ Systems  Responsiveness (Irritability): o Definition: the ability of an organism to respond to changes in its environment o Ex. Moving hand from hot stove o Organisms make long lasting changes too (growing heavier coat for winter) o The capacity to make adjustments = adaptability  Growth and Differentiation o In multicellular organisms, the individual cells become specialized to perform particular functions = differentiation o Produces changes in form and function (ex. Anatomical proportions)  Reproduction o Organisms reproduce their own kind either multi or unicellular  Movement o Internal: transporting food, blood o External: through the environment  Metabolism and Excretion o Metabolism – all the chemical operations under way in the body o Catabolism – the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones o Anabolism – synthesis of complex molecules from simple ones o Normal metabolic operations require the absorption of materials from the environment o Respiration – the absorption, transport and use of oxygen by cells o Excretion – removal of waste products  Figure 1.5 An Intro to Organ Systems o Integumentary – protection from environmental hazards, temp control o Skeletal – support, protect of tissues, mineral storage, blood formation o Muscular – locomotion, support, heat production o Nervous – response stimuli, coordinate activities of all other OS’s o Endocrine – directing long term changes o Cardiovascular – transport of cells, nutrients, wastes, gases o Lymphatic – defense against infection/disease o Digestive – processing of food, absorption of nutrients, water, vitamins minerals o Urinary – elimination of excess water, salts, waste, controls pH o Reproductive –sex cells and hormones 1.6 Language of Anatomy (see textbook for figures 1.6, 1.8, 1.9 1.10, 1.11 and Table 1.1)  Integumenary system = only one seen on the outside of the body  Anatomical Landmarks: o Anatomical Position: legs together, feet flat on floor, arms at sides, palms facing up( this is the standard by which the language of anatomy regardless of level is communicated) o Supine: lying face up o Prone: lying face down  Anatomical Regions: o Used to indicate special areas of the abdominal and pelvic region o Two methods:  Abdominopelvic quadrants – divided into four sections(one horizontal and one vertical intersecting at umbilicus/naval)  Useful refrences for aches, pains and injuries  Can determine cause (ex. Appendicitis in the right lower quadrant)  Abdominopelvic regions – show the relationship between quadrants, regions and internal organs  Anatomical Directions: o Anterior/Posterior – front of body/back of body (ex. The scapula is posterior to the rib cage. The naval is on the anterior surface of the trunk) o Lateral/Medial – away from midline/towards midline (ex. The arm is lateral to the sternum. The heart is medial to the sternum) o Proximal/distal – toward an attached base/away from attached base (ex. The shoulder is proximal to the wrist. The fingers are distal to the wrist.) o Superficial /Deep – near body surface/toward interior of body (ex. The skin is superficial. The bone of the thigh is deep to the muscles.) o Cranial/Caudal – toward the head/toward the tail (ex. The cranial border of the pelvis is superior to the thigh. The hips are caudal to the waist.)  Sectional Anatomy: o Three Sectional Planes  Transverse Plane: lies at right angles to the longitudinal axis, a division along this plane is a transverse section/cross section  Frontal/Coronal Plane: extends from side to side, dividing the body into posterior and anterior positions  Sagittal Plane: extends from anterior to posterior, dividing the body into right and left sides  Midsagittal section – plane passes through the midline  Parasagittal section – misses the midline creating unequal halves o Serial Construction – choosing one sectional plane and making a series of sections at small intervals, permitting the analysis of relatively complex structures.


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