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Physics 2080; Week 2: Chapter 16 part B and Chapter 17

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by: Amanda Biddlecome

Physics 2080; Week 2: Chapter 16 part B and Chapter 17 Physics 2080

Marketplace > Clemson University > Physics 2 > Physics 2080 > Physics 2080 Week 2 Chapter 16 part B and Chapter 17
Amanda Biddlecome
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover the second portion of chapter 16: Temperature and Heat, and all of Chapter 17: Thermodynamics
General Physics 2
Dr. Pope
Class Notes
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"I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER"
Rowena Leannon

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Biddlecome on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Physics 2080 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Pope in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see General Physics 2 in Physics 2 at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Physics  2080   Chapter  16  Temperature  and  Heat  Part  B   January  12,  2016   Amanda  Biddlecome     1)  Heat     -­‐an  object  with  a  higher  temperature=hot     -­‐heat  spontaneously  flows  always  from  hot  to  cold     -­‐heat=energy       *unit=Joules     -­‐Internal  Energy=heat       *heat  flow  depends  on  how  much  internal  energy  is  stored     -­‐Conduction=flow  of  heat  through  a  physical  material       *heat  transmits  through  objects  by  molecules  transferring  kinetic         energy       *the  larger  the  cross  sectional  area,  the  more  heat  flows       *heat  flow  increases  as  temperature  increases  and  with  time       *heat  flow  decreases  with  increasing  length  of  the  rod  because  energy         has  to  be  transmitted  through  the  whole  rod     Rate  of  heat  transfer:  Q/Δt=(KA/L)ΔT   *K=thermal  conductivity:  the  larger  the  number,  the  better  of  a  conductor  of  heat   (conductor)  and  the  lower  the  number  the  worse  of  a  conductor  (insulator)   *A=cross  sectional  area   *T=temperature   *Q=heat   *t=time   *L=length       -­‐Convection=flow  of  fluid  (gas  and  liquid)  due  to  a  temperature  difference       *the  fluid  carries  the  heat  with  it  as  it  moves     -­‐Radiation=the  transfer  of  energy  in  electromagnetic  waves       *objects  give  off  energy  in  forms  of  radiation       *electromagnetic  waves  can  be  transmitted  through  vacuums       *heated  objects  glow  different  colors  depending  on  the  energy  in  the         object       *human  bodies  give  off  infrared  radiation     P=eσ(T^4)A   *e=emissivity=a  number  between  0  and  1;  the  closer  to  1  the  number  is,  the  more   heat  the  object  radiates   *σ=Boltzmann  constant:  5.67*10^-­‐8   *P=power   *T=temperature  (Kelvin)(the  change  between  the  environment  and  the  object)   *A=cross-­‐sectional  area   Physics  2080   Chapter  17:  Thermodynamics   January  12-­‐14,  2016   Amanda  Biddlecome       1)  Thermodynamic  Processes     -­‐ideal  gas=extremely  close  to  what  happens  in  real  life,  but  not  quite     -­‐pv  diagram=pressure  versus  volume  (shows  thermodynamic  processes)       *isovolumic  process,  isobaric  process,  Boyle’s  Law,  Adiabatic  Curve     -­‐Isovolumic  Process-­‐between  initial  and  final  state       *initial  and  final  volume  is  the  same       *pressure  increases       *represented  by  a  vertical  line  on  the  pv  diagram     -­‐Isobaric  Process-­‐the  vessel  can  expand       *constant  pressure;  volume  can  change       *represented  by  a  horizontal  line  on  the  pv  diagram     -­‐Boyle’s  Law-­‐pressure  varies  inversely  with  volume  at  a  constant     temperature       *isothermal  curve     -­‐Adiabatic  Curve-­‐no  heat  exchange  between  the  environment  and  the  object       *pressure,  volume,  and  temperature  are  free  to  change     2)  Ideal  Gas  Law     PV=nRT   *P=pressure   *V=volume   *n=number  of  moles   *R=universal  gas  constant=8.31  J(molK)^-­‐1   *T=temperature  (Kelvin)       -­‐sometimes  it’s  best  to  look  at  the  number  of  moles,  n,  as  the  number  of     molecules,  N.         *multiply  by  Avogadro’s  Number/Avogadro’s  number     PV=nRT=nNa(R/Na)T=N(R/Na)T   *Na=Avogadro’s  number   *R/Na=Boltzmann’s  constant  kb=1.38*10^-­‐23Jk^-­‐1     PV=NkbT     3)  Units  of  Pressure     -­‐1  atm=101  kPa     -­‐R=8.314  J(mol*K)^-­‐1     -­‐k=1.38*10^-­‐23  J/K     -­‐Pa=unite  we  use  for  pressure=N/m^2     -­‐J=Nm     -­‐when  we  use  all  of  these  units  in  our  ideal  gas  law  equation,  they  all  cancel     and  simplify     4)  Kinetic  Theory     -­‐this  relates  the  microscopic  (position  and  velocity)  to  the  macroscopic     (pressure  and  temperature)     -­‐in  a  container  with  a  constant  volume  and  identical  molecules  that  act  as     point  particles:           *the  particles  obey  Newton’s  Laws       *the  collisions  between  the  molecules  and  the  walls  are  elastic       *adding  more  molecules  increases  pressure       *increasing  temperature  increases  pressure       *if  we  were  to  shrink  the  box  (decrease  volume)  the  pressure  would         increase     -­‐Pressure  happens  when  molecules  collide  with  the  walls  of  their  container       *it  depends  on  mass,  speed,  and  container  size     -­‐not  all  molecules  have  the  same  speech       *each  molecule  has  a  most  probable  speed,  but  they  have  the           possibility  of  being  any  speed     -­‐speed  can  be  represented  by  rms  speed     Vrms=√[(v1^2+v2^2…+vn^2)/n]         -­‐speed  can  be  represented  as  the  average  speed     v=(v1+v2+…+vn)/n       -­‐the  most  probable  speed  is  the  speed  where  the  most  particles  are  in  motion     -­‐rms  speed  is  the  greatest  value  of  all  of  these  speeds     -­‐Kinetic  Theory  shows  us  how  to  find  kinetic  energy  in  general     Kavg=(1/2)mvrms^2   Kavg=(3/2)kT   *the  3  is  because  the  particles  move  in  3D   *find  the  vrms  by  setting  the  two  Kavg  equations  equal  to  one  another  and  solve   Vrms=√[(3kT0/m]   *k=Boltzmann’s  Constant   *T=temperature  (Kelvin)   *m=mass  (kg/molecules)       -­‐Potential  Energy=internal  energy  of  an  ideal  gas     U=(3/2)NkT=(3/2)nRT   *use  either  equation,  depending  on  which  units  you  are  give     5)  Heat     -­‐adding  heat  (+);  subtracting  heat  (-­‐)     -­‐some  things  are  easier  to  heat  than  others,  depending  on  the  material     Q=mcΔT   *Q=heat   *m=mass  (kg)   *c=specific  heat  (different  for  every  substance)   *ΔT=change  in  temperature  (Kelvin)       -­‐large  specific  heats  means  that  an  object  can  give  off  or  take  in  a  lot  heat     without  much  change  in  temperature       -­‐we  can  add  heat  and  change  the  temperature  or  we  can  add  heat  and  change     the  phase     -­‐Latent  Heat=the  heat  per  kilogram  of  substance  that  has  to  be  added  or     subtracted  to  change  phases  at  a  constant  temperature       *Lf  (fusion)=solid  to  liquid       *Lv  (vaporization)=liquid  to  gas       *Ls  (sublimination)=solid  to  gas       *latent  heats  are  determined  by  what  the  substance  is         *to  calculate  change  in  temperature,  use     Q=mcΔT         *to  calculate  change  in  phase,  use     Q=(+/-­‐)mL   *L:  use  either  Lf,  Lv,  or  Ls,  depending  on  the  phase  you  are  changing  to       -­‐to  find  the  total  heat,  you  find  the  heat  caused  by  the  changes  in  temperature     and  the  heat  caused  by  the  changes  in  phase  and  then  you  add  them  together       *signs  are  very  important  to  remember  when  doing  this  math                    


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