Week One: Late Gothic & the international Style
Week One: Late Gothic & the international Style ARH 304
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Pontin on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 304 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Vibeke Olson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Northern Renaissance Art in Art History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Northern Renaissance Art ARH 304 Late Gothic & the International Style The following notes are taken form the presentation of Dr. Vibeke Olson on January, 13, 2016 Dedication Page, bible of Saint Louis (Moralized Bible), c. 1230 https://da.khanacademy.org/humanities/medieval-world/latin-western-europe/gothic1/a/blanche- of-castile-and-king-louis-ix-of-france *moralized bible- a book that takes particular selections from the Bible and links them with the ideas of morality and virtue; followed by images. Mostly made for kings as this book would show them how they should conduct themselves as royalty with grace. This moralized bible was made in particular for King Louis IX (picture in upper right corner). He inherited the throne after his father’s sudden death. He however being too young could not rule the throne, so his mother, Blanche of Castile (picture in upper left corner), ruled until he became of age. You can tell this was made for a king through certain features of the page: Gold leaf, showing expense Figures are wearing blue/purple robes: this color was rare to obtain and was a color of royalty. Color is obtained from a woad plant or lapis lazuli from Afghanistan. Crown, orb, staff, and throne are present and are all symbols of a king. Ermine fur lining the inside of the Queen’s robe. Ermine is the fur of a stoat (a weasel with white overall body and black tipped tail) most commonly made for winter coats for members of nobility The figures are presented in an elegant and clam manner. Featuring long limbs and necks, pale skin all commonly seen in courtly style. Member of the clergy (picture in bottom left corner) and a scribe (bottom right corner) show the process of the bible making. The production would usually be made in monasteries. o This brought awareness to the spread of the university system also known as cathedral schools as knowledge surrounded and derived from religious experiences. o Book production would later move to the secular realm of the guild system To become part of the Guild system, one would after being an apprentice, need to present a masterpiece of their own. One would then become a master in the guild. Joshua Bidding the Sun and the Moon to Stand Still, the Psalter of Saint Louis, c. 1253-1270 https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/542/flashcards/406542/png/st._louis_psalter1305306 809519.png Manuscript containing only psalms Psalm: a poetic prayer King Louis was known as a pious king who chanted songs through his bible. Soldiers are pictures in chainmail remaining elegant through courtly style. Architecture of the background resemble Rayonnant/Gothic style. King Louis IX was connected with the Sainte-Chapelle (“Holy-Chapel”) in the heart of Paris, France. Made by Pierre de Montreuil, c. 1245 o Acted as a place for Louis’ relic collection. One, if not the most important, relic of this collection was the Crown of Thorns. This serves as a symbol of King Louis’ divine right to rule. Reference: Louis IX and his brother carrying the Crown of Thorns, The Hour of Jeanne d’Evreux Annunciation and Visitation, Notre-Dame de Reims, c. 1211-1299 http://userscontent2.emaze.com/images/854495a3-a33d-4133-b53d-8cee183d0437/665dc7a8- b280-4b81-b501-cd5adf9cedbbimage13.png Sculptures on the walls of the Notre Dame de Reims depicting: o the annunciation where Mary is visited by the angel Gabrielle to receive the news that she is the bare Christ o And the visitation, where Gabrielle visits Mary once more but to bring her the gift of Death. Long delicate figures, smiling (on left) and calm Large fold style garments clothe the beings, draped over their bodies All examples Naturalism through Gothic sway of courtly o Gothic sway: shifting of weight to one side of the other style Alludes the Greek contrapposto posture. Virgin and Child of Jeanne d’Evreux, c. 1324-1339 http://www.louvre.fr/sites/default/files/imagecache/940x768/medias/medias_images/images/louv re-vierge-l039enfant_5.jpg Functioned as a reliquary owned by Jeanne d’Evreux: The Queen of France Jeanne d’Evreux: o Member of nobility through marriage to husband o Wife of Charles IV (1326) o Reliquary is possible wedding gift Reliquary holds presumed relic of the Virgin Mary Relic: a piece of a saint; i.e. body part, article of clothing, piece of jewelry, possession, etc. o Jesus Christ and the Virgin Mary have no bodily relics as their bodies ascended to heaven, showing the reliquary holds something other than a body relic. Gothic sway present through Mary’s posture as well as courtly style. Interaction between mother and child is sweet and loving. The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux: Book made for Queen Jeanne d’Evreux as a wedding gift Book includes prayers/hours of the Virgin Mary Given to her by Charles IV Book served as status symbol, was to be shown off and presented to others. Jean Pucelle (artist) influence and impacted world of art in Franc through the creation of this book. o The book lack color (grisaille) a specialty of the artist Jean Pucelle Grisaille: French term for black and white. No gold, but still held noble status Book attached to the belt of the Queen to be on her during all hours of prayer. o Easy access o People of this time went to church less and less and felt divorced from religion; this book prevented that. Jean Pucelle, The Annunciation, The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, 1325-1328 (Right page) Jean Pucelle, The Arrest of Christ and the Annunciation, The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux, 1325-1328 (Left page) https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/4_Jean_Pucelle._Hours_of_Jeanne_d'Evre ux._1325-28,_Metropolitan_Museum,_New-York.jpg Courtly entertainments serve as borders for the pages Scene of the Arrest of Christ) o Gothic sway and curtly style both present Scene of Annunciation o Gothic sway presented by Mary o Angel Gabriele present o Mary holding book shows she is pious and literate. Pious, pure, obedient, and fertile: all features of a noble woman o Pucelle attempts to create 3D reality on 2D surface Box in axel perspective creating building/setting where figures reside, creating space Mary inaccurately take up the whole room Reference Duccio di Buoninsegna, The Annunciation of the Death of Mary, The Maesta Altarpiece, 1308-1311 o Pucelle traveled to Italy to see this piece o Life of Mary showing in footnote of the altarpiece o Angel hold palm branch: symbol of murder and death o Pucelle notes the setting and perspective Italy at the time was interested in the new artistic trend of shape of space Simone Martini, Annunciation, 1333 http://irontongue.blogspot.com/2013_03_01_archive.html The message of Mary’s death from angel Gabriele. Italian painter, Martini, traveled to work o Often influenced by Byzantine art as seen in piece above. In 1309, pope Clement V (1305) was not of Italian descent, creating faction in church. Papal church was then moved to the South of France: Avignon from 1309-1378 and was known as the Babylonian captivity as the church felt they were being held hostage outside of Italy. Pope then needed Italian decoration for the palace and hired Simone Martini. Richard II Presented to the Virgin and Child, The Wilton Diptych (interior: top, exterior: bottom), 1395-99 http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/upload/img/english-french-the-wilton-diptych-NG4451- fm.jpg http://www.history.ac.uk/richardII/images/wiltback_big.jpg A two-part fold panel of Richard II Byzantine and courtly style: o Figures somewhat reflect green-like tint to skin Attempt to show realism o Nominalism: notion that reality lays in the idea that figures could be physically understood and experience through the sense. Reality seen through characteristics/features opposed to just the name Reality is tangible Made for Richard the II as he is present (top left panel) (Bottom) Richard II’s notary symbols of his coat of arms (bottom left panel) and personal symbol: white heart/stag (bottom right panel)
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