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PSYC 1000 Week 1 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 Week 1 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 1 Notes
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About this Document

Chapter 1
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
Psychology, Introductory Psychology, Rollins
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
PSYC 1000 Notes Week 1 Jan 11­15 Notes from textbook ­ Behavior genetics (p. 134­135) ­ Behavior genetics: the study of human differences and the interplay of heredity  and environment ­ We gain DNA in the form of chromosomes (46 total, 23 from each parent) and  these chromosomes contain genes ­ Genome: genetic material/instructions for making an organism ­ Gene­Environment Interaction (p. 142­143) ­ Molecular genetics: the study of molecular structure and the function of genes ­ Molecular behavior genetics: studying the genes that orchestrate complex traits  (such as body weight and impulsivity) ­ Epigenetics: the study of the environmental factors that affect how genes are  expressed Notes from lecture ­ Chapter 1: Introduction to the Science of Psychology ­ Psychology: science of behavior and mental processes ­ Unscientific psychology ("armchair psychology") ­ Based on speculation, casual observation, anecdotal evidence ­ "Obvious" answer not always correct ­ Just thinking, not testing ­ Our beliefs/cultural values alter how we perceive information ­ History of psychology ­ Wilhelm Wundt, 1879 opened the first lab ­ William James, first US lab ­ Focus on cognitive processes until 1920's ­ Focus on behavior from 1920's ­ 1960's ­ Argument that cognitive processes could not be studied objectively ­ Behaviorism backlash: criticism that psychology has to do with more  than just behavior ­ Cognitive psych returns in 1960's (Cognitive Revolution) ­ Modern psychology ­ Areas of specialization ­ Clinical psychology ­ Diagnosis and treatment ­ Clinical psychologists (graduate school, PHD) vs. Psychiatrists  (medical school, doctorate, can prescribe medication) ­ Biological psychology ­ Influences of biology on psychological processes ­ Cognitive psychology ­ Study of mental processes ­ Developmental, personality, social, industrial/organizational psychology ­ Approaches to psychology ­ Bio­psychosocial approach ­ Behavioral and mental phenomena arise from interaction of  biological, psychological, and social influences ­ Nature and nurture inseparable, interact ­ Inherit predispositions that are modified by environment ­ Gene/environment interactions ­ Genes do not necessarily determine behavior ­ Genes code for proteins ­ Critical thinking ­ Question others and yourself ­ Examine how terms are defined ­ Look for potential biases, hidden agendas ­ Verify evidence ­ Watch out for generalizations and simplifications ­ Animal research applied to humans ­ Beware of ethnocentrism (belief that one's culture is the norm) ­ Western world applied to everyone else ­ Attributing behavior to single cause ­ Consider alternative interpretations of the evidence ­ Be cautious of reports in the media ­ Journalism/popular media is not necessarily scientifically sound  ­ A single study is not definitive ­ Exceptions to the general rule don't necessarily disprove the rule ­ Don't allow vivid personal examples influence you more than hard data ­ Research methods in psychology ­ Scientific method ­ template for research ­ Identify research question (hypothesis) ­ Theory: explanation of a phenomenon that summarizes research  findings (must be testable) ­ Decide how to test the hypothesis ­ Gather and analyze data ­ Draw conclusions ­ Case study: in­depth analysis of one or a few individuals ­ May not apply to others ­ Do not prove anything ­ For specific/unique circumstances ­ Naturalistic observation ­ Observing individuals in their natural setting without interference ­ Problems: observations skewed by observer's beliefs and values; subjects may know they're being studied (especially with animals) ­ Survey method ­ Questionnaires, interviews ­ Potential inaccuracy of self­report ­ Sampling: process of selecting participants ­ Representative samples: random sample where every member of  the population has an equal opportunity to take part ­ Typical of larger population ­ Large samples, random samples ­ Volunteer bias: people who choose to be part of a survey may  have stronger ideas about the survey topic than others ­ Wording ­ Correlational research: attempt to find a linear relationship between two  variables ­ Correlation: mathematical estimate of the extent to which two variables  are linearly related to each other (can predict the value of one based on the other) ­ Positive correlation: direct relationship ­ Variables increase and decrease together ­ Negative correlation: inverse relationship ­ One variable increases while another decreases ­ Scatterplots: no/little correlation ­ Correlation coefficient (r) ­ r = ­1 to +1 ­ Positive correlation (+1) vs. Negative correlation (­1) ­ Stronger correlation closer to the absolute value of 1 ­ Often done on data gathered from surveys ­ Reveals if variables are related, strength of relationship, direction of  relationship


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