PSYC 1000 Week 1 Notes
PSYC 1000 Week 1 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
PSYC 1000 Notes Week 1 Jan 1115 Notes from textbook Behavior genetics (p. 134135) Behavior genetics: the study of human differences and the interplay of heredity and environment We gain DNA in the form of chromosomes (46 total, 23 from each parent) and these chromosomes contain genes Genome: genetic material/instructions for making an organism GeneEnvironment Interaction (p. 142143) Molecular genetics: the study of molecular structure and the function of genes Molecular behavior genetics: studying the genes that orchestrate complex traits (such as body weight and impulsivity) Epigenetics: the study of the environmental factors that affect how genes are expressed Notes from lecture Chapter 1: Introduction to the Science of Psychology Psychology: science of behavior and mental processes Unscientific psychology ("armchair psychology") Based on speculation, casual observation, anecdotal evidence "Obvious" answer not always correct Just thinking, not testing Our beliefs/cultural values alter how we perceive information History of psychology Wilhelm Wundt, 1879 opened the first lab William James, first US lab Focus on cognitive processes until 1920's Focus on behavior from 1920's 1960's Argument that cognitive processes could not be studied objectively Behaviorism backlash: criticism that psychology has to do with more than just behavior Cognitive psych returns in 1960's (Cognitive Revolution) Modern psychology Areas of specialization Clinical psychology Diagnosis and treatment Clinical psychologists (graduate school, PHD) vs. Psychiatrists (medical school, doctorate, can prescribe medication) Biological psychology Influences of biology on psychological processes Cognitive psychology Study of mental processes Developmental, personality, social, industrial/organizational psychology Approaches to psychology Biopsychosocial approach Behavioral and mental phenomena arise from interaction of biological, psychological, and social influences Nature and nurture inseparable, interact Inherit predispositions that are modified by environment Gene/environment interactions Genes do not necessarily determine behavior Genes code for proteins Critical thinking Question others and yourself Examine how terms are defined Look for potential biases, hidden agendas Verify evidence Watch out for generalizations and simplifications Animal research applied to humans Beware of ethnocentrism (belief that one's culture is the norm) Western world applied to everyone else Attributing behavior to single cause Consider alternative interpretations of the evidence Be cautious of reports in the media Journalism/popular media is not necessarily scientifically sound A single study is not definitive Exceptions to the general rule don't necessarily disprove the rule Don't allow vivid personal examples influence you more than hard data Research methods in psychology Scientific method template for research Identify research question (hypothesis) Theory: explanation of a phenomenon that summarizes research findings (must be testable) Decide how to test the hypothesis Gather and analyze data Draw conclusions Case study: indepth analysis of one or a few individuals May not apply to others Do not prove anything For specific/unique circumstances Naturalistic observation Observing individuals in their natural setting without interference Problems: observations skewed by observer's beliefs and values; subjects may know they're being studied (especially with animals) Survey method Questionnaires, interviews Potential inaccuracy of selfreport Sampling: process of selecting participants Representative samples: random sample where every member of the population has an equal opportunity to take part Typical of larger population Large samples, random samples Volunteer bias: people who choose to be part of a survey may have stronger ideas about the survey topic than others Wording Correlational research: attempt to find a linear relationship between two variables Correlation: mathematical estimate of the extent to which two variables are linearly related to each other (can predict the value of one based on the other) Positive correlation: direct relationship Variables increase and decrease together Negative correlation: inverse relationship One variable increases while another decreases Scatterplots: no/little correlation Correlation coefficient (r) r = 1 to +1 Positive correlation (+1) vs. Negative correlation (1) Stronger correlation closer to the absolute value of 1 Often done on data gathered from surveys Reveals if variables are related, strength of relationship, direction of relationship
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