PSY2012 Chapter 1 Outline
PSY2012 Chapter 1 Outline PSY 2012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sally O'Donnell on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by Hayley Kamin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
PSY2012: CHAPTER 1 PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC THINKING OUTLINE I. What is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition Psychology and Levels of Analysis o Psychology—the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. o Psychology has multiple levels of analysis, ranging from the molecular level to the social level. Higher rungs tied to social influences; lower rungs tied to biological influences (From greatest to smallest): SocialBehavioralMentalNeurological/physiologicalNeur ochemicalMolecular What Makes Psychology Distinctive o Human behavior is difficult to predict; actions are multiply determined o Psychological influences affect one another; they are rarely independent o Individual differences—people think differently from one another; people have different emotions, personality, and behavior o People influence each other Reciprocal determinism—people influence one another’s behavior o A person’s behavior is usually influenced by their culture Why We Can’t Always Trust Our Common Sense o Naïve realism—belief that we see the world precisely how it is “Seeing is believing” cannot always be trusted, sometimes our common sense deceives us Psychology as a Science o Scientific Theory—an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural/psychological world. Theories are more generalized A good scientific theory is falsifiable in that a better explanation might take its place one day o Theories are generated from hypotheses—testable predictions Hypotheses are more specific to certain events o Protecting ourselves from bias Confirmation bias—tendency to seek out evidence that supports our claims, and to dismiss/distort evidence that contradicts them. Belief perseverance—tendency to stick to our beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Metaphysical Claims—assertions about the world we cannot test scientifically o We must distinguish metaphysical and scientific claims II. Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Sciencde Pseudoscience—claims that seem scientific, but are not o Lacks safeguards against confirmation bias and belief perseverance o Pseudoscience differs from metaphysical claims. Pseudoscience can be tested in principle o Examples: ESP, haunted houses, ghosts, telepathy, astrology o It is not wrong to believe these, but there lacks an adequate amount of scientific evidence to prove these things to be accurate o Warnings of pseudoscience (Table 1.1 in book p14) Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis Exaggerated Claims Overreliance of anecdotes Absence of connectivity to other research Lack of review by other scholars (peer review) or replication by labs Lack of self-correlation when contrary evidence published Meaningless “psychobabble” Talk of “proof” instead of “evidence” o Logical fallacies of pseudoscience (More on Table 1.4 in book p19) Emotional Reasoning Fallacy—error of using our emotions as guides to evaluate a claim Bandwagon fallacy—error of believing a claim to be valid because many other people believe it Not-me fallacy—error of believing that we’re immune to bias errors that affect other people Bias blind spot—most people are unaware of their biases but aware of them in others Dangers of Pseudoscience o Opportunity cost: what we give up Can lead people to forgo opportunities to seek effective treatments o Direct Harm May cause harmful affects to those who are being treated o An Inability to Think Scientifically as Citizens III. Scientific Thinking: Distinguishing Fact From Fiction Scientific Skepticism—evaluate claims carefully and refuse to accept them until they meet a high standard of evidence o Critical thinking Six Principals of scientific thinking (Figure 1.7 p23) o Ruling our rival hypotheses o Correlation is not causation o Falsifiability A claim must be capable of being proven wrong o Replicability Can be duplicated with consistent findings o Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence o Occam’s razor, or “principle of parsimony” (logical simplicity) If two explanations equally well explain a phenomenon, we should generally select the simpler one IV. Psychology’s Past and Present Psychology’s Early History o 1879: Wilhelm Wundt developed the first full-fledged psychological lab o Introspection—requires trained observers to reflect and report their mental experiences Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology o Structuralism Founded by Edward Bradford Titchener Aimed to identify basic elements, or “structures,” of psychological experience Fell through due to disagreements on reports and “imageless thought,” where some thinking did not require conscious experience o Functionalism Founded by William James Influenced by Charles Darwin’s work Sought to understand adaptive purposes/functions of physiological characteristics (thoughts, feelings, behaviors) o Behaviorism Founded by John B. Watson Followed by Burrhus Frederic Skinner Focuses on covering general principles of learning underlying human and animal behavior Human mind is like a black box: we know what goes in and what comes out; we do not need to know what happens in between o Cognitivism Important Figures: Jean Piaget, Ulric Neisser Argues that our thinking affects our behavior in powerful ways Behavior is partially determined by our interpretation of rewards and our insight of problems A thriving branch of psychology today Cognitive neuroscience—relations between brain functioning and thinking o Psychoanalysis Founded by Sigmund Freud Focuses on internal psychological process (impulses, thoughts, memories of subconscious) Behavior is influenced by internal factors of unconscious drives The Great Debates of Psychology o Nature-Nurture o Free will-Determinism Are our behaviors free will or caused by factors outside of our control?
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