Mars Colony Proposal
Mars Colony Proposal
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Mars Colony Proposal: Operation Dauntless Aaron Maynard High School Aerospace Scholars, Texas Submitted to— Danielle Moore High School Aerospace Scholars, Texas 1 2 Contents Executive Summary 3 Statement of Problem 4 Objectives 4 Technical Approach 5 Living Quarters 5 Working Facilities 5 Energy Source Production Facilities 6 Food Production Facilities 7 Wellness Facilities 7 Medical Facilities 7 Mobility Elements 8 Space Suit Systems 8 Communication Systems 8 Colony Structure 9 Inhabitants 9 Governing Laws 9 Government 9 Hazards / Dangers 9 Conclusion 10 References 11 3 Executive Summary Sending people to Mars has always been popular with science fiction and fan fiction throughout the centuries. Recent advancements in technology have allowed people to think seriously about landing and possible settling on Mars. Preliminary work for these missions have already started since the mid1950s, by many organizations and space agencies. However there are many challenges that humans must overcome before any attempts to land on the Martian surface can happen. Operation Dauntless plans to make the process and structure of Mars colonization as efficiently as possible with the best resources available. Starting a colonization on Mars can lead to stellar achievements, however it will require people with specific skill sets to accomplish. During the initial settlements, the best people who have knowledge in their fields will be wanted for this mission. Medical doctors, engineers, chemists, astronomers and physicists will be needed to allow advanced studies in the effects of civilization for interplanetary travel, as well as discover possibilities for future endeavors. A colonization on Mars is what scientists, astronauts and civilians alike need to know about what it takes to colonize a celestial body. There will be many obstacles in the way, but with careful planning and research they can be overcome. Operation Dauntless is a detailed and effective plan that the human race should implement for future colonization. 4 Statement of Problem A colonization on Mars would open up endless possibilities. There are many secrets that have yet to be unlocked on the Martian surface. There is great potential that there are microorganisms currently residing on the planet’s atmosphere. Rovers have been sent to Mars to settle the debate on whether or not there is, or has been, life on Mars. However we will only truly know when humans go out and look for themselves. Mars also give scientist a view of how a planet develops. Being billions of years older than Earth, scientists can use Mars as a guide to what can develop on Earth and how the planet itself can evolve. Every few million years, all life on Earth seems to vanish completely due to a supernatural catastrophic event. Mars could be a solution to refuge when the end of the world for humans come near. There are a few questions that need to be asked. Would it be possible to make a “second” Earth? How would colonist’s terraform the landscape? How much would it cost to send a group of people to Mars? How would we remain healthy? What possibilities could a colony or base on Mars entail Design Objectives This document proposes Operation Dauntless. This mission is to understand how humans will adapt to interstellar colonization. There are three primary objectives for the colony’s mission: (1) Study the effects of civilization for interplanetary travel, (2) Establish mining facilities for the generation of resources, (3) Establish a launch port on Mars for easier launches of deep space missions. Before the human race can even start thinking of sending people into the far reaches of space, we need to first understand how the human body will react in the space environment for long periods of time, as well as understand how we must sustain life without the support from Earth if possible. Economical systems could greatly benefit from mining useful materials from Mars. There have been a plethora of valuable elements that have been detected such as Magnesium, Aluminum, Titanium, Iron, Copper and Gold, just to name a few. Not only could elements be obtained from mining, but water as well from various veins scattered 5 across the surface. These resources could then be used to aid in the further construction of the colony, or on future design of spacecraft. By having a launching station on either Mars or on of its orbiting moons, the amount of energy needed to launch a craft into space is greatly decreased. In turn, this effects the amount of fuel and other resources required for a launch. This save people from excess work to overcome the forces that gravity would generate like it does on earth. Subsequently, if the launch area were outside an atmospheric pressure, people would no longer need to worry about weather affecting the launch schedule, allowing for more timely responses for a sudden mission. Technical Approach The Mars colony will need to be in a strategic location to best utilize the resources of Mars. Operation Dauntless suggests that the location of the colony be at the Planum Boreum. The coordinates for Planum Boreum are “88.0°N 15.0°E”. The reason why this location was picked is because it is located on the northern polar plain, belonging to a permanent ice cap on the north pole of Mars. There are many components needed for inhabitants of Mars to survive, work, stay psychologically and physically healthy. Each of these components will be modular, and built together once on the Martian surface. Living Quarters The living quarters on Mars will need to be large enough to accommodate life support systems, supplies as well as to reduce physiological trouble that one would have in close quarters. Mars has a serious threat of ultraviolet radiation due to the diminished magnetosphere. The polar area of Mars would help protect the colonists due to the polar magnetic field, but to ensure safety living quarters will be built underground, possibly in lava tubes which are currently present. Excavation for these living quarters could potentially bring resources for future development. To provide Oxygen, colonist are encouraged to have plants within their habitats for local conversion of CO 2nto Oxygen. This however will not be what colonists will be dependent on for Oxygen. There will be a separate system module specializing in the production of Oxygen. It will act as a green house, constantly using photosynthesis to convert the Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of Mars into breathable Oxygen. Recycling systems will be dependent on the material. Plastics that are used will be washed and melted down to form new plastic. This new plastic can be used to create bottles, containers or stored to eventually use on 3D printing. Liquids will go through chemical processes to rid them of any unwanted bacteria. If not filtered for drinking, the liquids can then be used to aid in the growth of the plants within the greenhouse. 6 Working Facilities There will be many working facilities that will be utilized during colonization. Facilities will fall into three main categories: Labs, Manufacturing and Data Processing. Labs will contain subfacilities that will focus on developing vitamins, studying chemical reactions, and most importantly Carbon dioxide utilization. The atmosphere of Mars is composed of roughly 95% carbon dioxide (CO ), this2can be used to an advantage. Inside the plethora of Martian rocks contain bountiful resources ready for the taking: magnesium, hydrogen (for rocket fuel), oxygen (to breath), and water (to drink). In order for those elements to be taken out of these rocks, solvents need to be used. This is where the CO 2omes in. When Carbon dioxide is compressed to 73 atm, and heated to 31.1 degrees Celsius, it becomes what is known as a superficial fluid. When CO is in2this state it becomes a perfect solvent for retaining these elements. Labs will also be in charge of the waste disposal systems. Feces will be turned into fertilizers for plant growth, and urine will be purified into potable water. Manufacturing will become a great economic gain on the colonization of Mars. With plenty of resources to work with, making rocket propellant as an In Situ Resource Utilization is quite possible. This can lead to future exploration launches because Mars will be capable of generating its own resources in the planet’s surface. 3D printing in space is another technological feat that can be practiced on Mars. While printing in space, it is possible to make items that could not be done on earth due to the gravity that affects the print. Components that are needed right away could be quickly printed and used in case of urgency or need. Any broken items can be quickly and easily replaced. Ceramics are also a good production because they provide carrying cases and containers for supplies and materials. Bio hazardous waste will go through proper checking; radioactive materials will be placed in bathes below the surface making sure that radiation in contained, liquid wastes will be bleached before going into draining systems. To control mitigation throughout the colony, vapor barriers will be installed with geomembranes. Because the pressure inside the modules will be greater than the atmosphere outside, habitats will make great use of the “Building OverPressurization” method. This method adjusts the containments heating and ventilation to ensure prober control of the area. Energy Source Production Facilities Every living facility, working facility, mobility enhancers and powered equipment will make the use of electric power. Solar power will be a key factor during Mars colonization. It is cheap, easy to convert, lacks dangerous situations and is a renewable resource; solar power will be the primary power supply system for the colonization of Mars. If a large solar panel array were to be situated at a latitude of 040° north of the equator, they could generate enough power to match nuclear generators. An advantage to using photovoltaic cells to convert light into energy is the fact that it is low maintenance and can withstand a great deal of damage before they become inoperable. These characteristics are important when it comes to safety on any kind of outpost. In the 7 unlikely event that solar power is not available, the colony will result to nuclear powered systems. This is a backup option because of the possible effects of radiation. Food Production Facilities Martian soil is very dry and doesn’t contain very many nutrients. The best way to solve this problem is to utilize hydroponics. Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions and water. All of this can be done without soil. Soil acts as a sack that carries minerals, however it is not necessary for it to be present for the plant to actually grow. There are three big advantages to use a hydroponic system: There are no weeds and diseases are minimized Hydroponic plants are healthier and more vigorous The entire ecosystem can be automated with a timer Armed with this know edge, biologists can grow a variety of plants that can benefit the Martian community. They will be able to grow a variety of vegetables and herbs that can be used to nutrient the colonists. Since the climate on Mars is a rather cool one, the majority of produce will include crops such as broccoli, lettuces, spinach, peas, onions and carrots. Fruit that can be grown inside habitats with artificial light include (but are not limited to) strawberries, grapes, which produce year round. Medical Facilities Loss of bone density and muscle mass are the two most common effects of long term space travel. Since this is expected during the colonization process, many workout facilities will be placed around the medical module(s) if such a case were to occur. If colonists however suffer from more serious medical issues such as radiation and loss of eyesight, more serious precautions must be taken into place. Currently not much can be done about radiation, but protocols can be made to help ensure that they do not happen in the first place. If a colonist were to get a cataract due to ultraviolet light, surgery will be made available to treat the patient. Wellness Facilities Bungee cords are incredibly versatile, therefore are easy to introduce into exercising while in space. Bungee cords give people the ability to condition practically any part of their body, this includes the wrists, shoulders, chest, waist, legs, ankles and much more. Bungee cords allow astronauts to mimic a wide variety of body movements. Exercising does more that work out the body but also the mind. Many astronauts in the ISS spend an average of six months in space. Exercise is the key for keeping your head straight and working correctly. It has the capability the calm and relax, as well as 8 exhilarate and provide stimulation to the user. Keeping the body mentally happy works by reducing the levels of stress hormones within the body. It also helps in the production of endorphins, which act as painkillers for the body Mobility Elements Robots have been essential to space exploration and development. Mobile robots, or rovers, are vital because they can gather information and studies from multiple areas rather than just being on a static platform. A rover that could be efficient on Mars for site surveying would be NASA’s K10 rover. Having a vehicle for colonists to travel around would be greatly beneficial. A design could be made off of NASA’s Lunar Electric Vehicle for Mars as well. LER/MER would give colonists the capability of expanding the development area quicker by allowing them to set up a temporary base with a “platoon” of these craft. Space Suit Systems The type of space suit system that would be used on Mars is the Aouda.X. This suit allows astronauts to both eat and drink within this suit. The suit will be equipped with a HeadsUpDisplay (HUD), Biometric Sensors, Voice Recognition, Communications and Life Support. This however could potentially be replaced with the NDX2 Advanced Lunar Suit, which is currently being develop. Communication Systems The communications system will include two satellites and two ground stations. The first satellite will be placed in an orbit around the Sun, while the second is positioned in an areostationary orbit. The two ground stations will be located on Earth, as well as in the colony. The areostationary satellite will allow the colonists constant communication with earth, except when Mars is between the satellite and Earth. To fix this problem the satellite orbiting the Sun will be trailing the Earth at approximately 60 degrees. 9 Colony Structure In order for the Mars colony to work productively and efficiently there will be a number of factors that need to be addressed. In order to help the concept of world peace, and to utilize the best of every nation, the Mars Colonization Mission will be ran internationally. The colony will have the foundation of a permanent settlement, therefore will need to set a government, establish laws, and have prerequisites for the initial wave of settlers. Inhabitants The estimated population of the colony after construction has finished will be approximately 40 people. There will be a onetoone ratio of malestofemales, 20 males and 20 females, with the age distribution from 18 – 35. Until construction is finished, every applicant must be of great use for the mission. This means that everyone will need to be specialized, they can be medical doctors, chemists, biologists, physicists, or engineers in the electrical, mechanical, civil, architectural or aerospace fields. The reason why they must be specialized in their fields is because they must be able to accomplish their work assignment correctly and in the best manner possible. Those who are given an area of work should stay in their positions during the work hours. Projects should be left to the people who are trained for that task. Governing Laws The laws that govern the colony will be based upon the Outer Space Treaty and the Human Rights Law. No new laws need to be created to protect the inhabitants of the new colony, however the Bill of Rights from the United States Constitution will be implemented into the governing system. Government Because the Outer Space Treaty will be taken into effect, no state may rightfully claim ownership to a land area on a celestial body. A state is however responsible for 10 any craft, or any damage done by a craft of which they own on said area. There must be a new Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) signed by every state involved in the construction and operation of the Mars colony. Each partner shall retain jurisdiction and control over personnel in or on the Mars colony who are its nationals. Therefore, for each module in the settlement only one partner retains sole ownership. Hazards / Dangers There will be many dangers for the colonists both during travel and once landed. During interplanetary travel they are at the risk of running out of fuel supplies. On Mars they may suffer from solar and cosmic radiation, as well as the extreme low temperatures and lack of soil. Conclusion There are many challenges that humans must overcome for a colonization on Mars to be successful. Special living quarters will need to be made. There will need to be a variety of working facilities to perform research. Power and food systems are critical to success. Colonists need to be taken care of when sick or injured. And there need to be communication at all times. Can all these specifications be met quickly and safely? “Even with all our technology and the inventions that make modern life so much easier than it once was, it takes just one big natural disaster to wipe all that away and remind us that, here on Earth, we’re still at the mercy of nature.” – Neil deGrasse Tyson. The human race doesn’t completely understand Earth, but settling a colony on Mars can allow us to understand what the Earth can become first hand, and may teach us what to do in such a case it does. Operation Dauntless will ensure that we learn everything we can from Mars. It may even help us discover the realm of the unknown. 11 References Baines, P., Zhanyuan, D., & Gallagher, N. W. (2006). Safeguarding space security prevention of an arms race in outer space : Conference Report 2122 March 2005.. Geneva, Switzerland: UNIDIR, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research. Drake, B. G. (1998). Reference mission version 3.0 addendum to the human exploration of Mars : the reference mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team. Houston, Tex.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center ;. Dunbar, B. (2012, November 19). Space and Clinical Operations Division. NASA. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.nasa.gov/centers/johnson/slsd/about/divisions/spacemed/ Hydroponics and aeroponics research by Pamyluv1. (n.d.). StudyMode. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/HydroponicsAnd 12 AeroponicsResearch1279403.html Lewis, J. S., Matthews, M. S., & Guerrieri, M. L. (1993). Resources of nearEarth space. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. 13