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Religion Final Exam Review 2015 Do Religion and Science Conflict? What happened when we try to talk about religion and science together? st 21 century methodologies for studying science and religion Method 1: Historiography of Science Historiography is the study of the methods of the disciple of history Historiography of science requires looking back and examining the history of science and religion Anachronism something out of place and time “Whig” history only tells the good (successful) events that lead up to a point. Leave out failure Method 2: Epoché Greek words means “cessation” or “suspension” First used by Greek skeptic philosophers In philosophy – and the study of religion – it means to cease all judgment of the external world Four Ways of Understanding of Religion and Science (Ian Barbar) 1. Conflict 2. Independence (keep religion and science separate) 3. Dialogue 4. Integration (religion and science come together for common purpose) Conflict: Scientific materialism; the sum of existence can be reduced to the laws of physics, chemistry, or predicted through mathematical modeling Biblical literalism: the content of the Bible supersedes materialist (scientific) declarations about the natural world As it turns out, the idea that religion and science are in conflict was essentially created by two people in the 19 century John William Draper and Andrew Dickson White John William Draper: “History of the Conflict of Science and Religin” o Published in 1874 o Focused mainly on historical conflicts between Roman Catholicism and science o All the conflicts he cited took place in Europe o Report that American Protestantism had few problems with science Andrew Dickson White: “A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology” o Published in 1896 o Critiqued dogmatic theology and its restrictions on science o White was a historian (Draper = chemist) and he meticulously researched his book o White’s book – written at least in part as a correction of Draper’s – became extremely popular Scientism scientific materialism (Isaac Newton) Young Earth Creationists look to Bible The Problems with Conflict Religion Final Exam Review 2015 o Scientific material is reductionists and puts too much emphasis on the scientific method as the only way of knowing o Biblical literalisms denies the findings of science o Can’t look at extremes Independence NeoOrthodoxy: scripture is not a revelation: it is a fallible human record of revelatory events Linguistic Analysis: scientific language is used to describe and ask questions Nonoverlapping Magisteria: can go worship in your church but all work in your lab without the two worlds touching popularized by Stephen Jay Gould o Science covers empirical knowledge while the other religion covers meaning and morals The problems of independence o Creates a break down between religion and science, which denies human experience (everything happens together) o Cannot have two languages without them connecting Dialogue Boundary questions: both science and religion are interested in origins The Limits of Observation: The Uncertainty Principle: cannot know the position and speed of electrons at the same time The problems with dialogue: not that many: significant parallels in the method and questions keeps the integrity of both Integration Natural Theology: the existence of God can be inferred from the evidence of design in nature, of which science has made us more aware Theology of Nature: the main source of theology Gaia Hypothesis: Earth is an entire biome more than just the sum of its parts o “care for the Earth” is a sacred obligation o Stewardship is how both scientific and religious value that could integrate science and religion Ecotheology: living beings are all equal under God. Humans no better than other animals Problems with integration: efforts to unite Christianity and science – leaves out other religions Where does that leave us? Points of Agreement: Religion and science share a conjoined history Religion and science are in conflict only if we refuse to see them as models of human understanding Both create feelings of wonder and awe For much of recorded history in Western world, the Earth was special because God created it, and humans were the culmination of the creation Aristotle: Religion Final Exam Review 2015 384 – 322 B.C.E.; Greek philosopher; student of Plato Founded practice of “natural philosophy” and was concerned with finding the “final cause” of things Wrote about everything wanted to answer “why?” Influenced thinking up until the Renaissance Aristotelianism: a form of philosophy inspired by Aristotle th o Moved through Greece, tthRome, to the Abbasid Empire (9 century C.E.) o Made it to Europe (12 century C.E.) o In the business of preserving the phenomenon – Aristotle’s explanation of nature Scholasticism: primary mode of learning at universities (34 centuries) based on the teachings of Aristotle in an attempt to reconcile Greek philosophy with Christian doctrine But some people wanted to study the universe Geocentric: galaxy revolves around the Earth Heliocentric: galaxy revolves around the Sun Claudias Ptolemaus 90 C.E. – 168 C.E. Astronomer in Egypt “Ptolemaic cosmology” – Earth is at the center of all celestial bodies Accepted for ~1500 years Adopted by Christian science because it upheld genesis Nicolas Copernicus 1473 – 1543 Expert in many fields Especially interested in astronomy and Ptolemaic cosmology Wrote De Revolutionbius (1543) o Said Earth rotates around the Sun o Points out that people had this idea before o Saw himself as clarifying model not correcting it still preserving phenomenon Tycho Brane 1546 – 1601 nobleman Inspired by a solar eclipse inspired to become an astronomer Worked the political system Supernova of 1572 Johannes of Kelper 1571 – 1630 Worked with Tycho (16001601) Wanted to be a priest, became an astronomer Used observations to form mathematically based cosmology “Astronomia nova” (1609) – heliocentric system – eclipse around the sun Correcting Copernicus – deviation of the Greek systems Based on mathematical principles Galileo Religion Final Exam Review 2015 1564 – 1642 Born in Pisa Went to university to study medicine – became interested in math Was not content with Aristotle’s physics because based on psychology not observations Wanted status in the royal court Transformed by realization you could study the heaven with math “The Starry Messenger” dedicated to Cosimo II de’Medici (summary of telescope observation) Cosmo II de’Medici (15901621) Galileo was childhood tutor, one of the most powerful people in Europe Church not against Galileo performing experiments but against him supporting Copernicus (church is the final decision on all things scientific) The Galileo Affair has come to represent the conflict thesis: Galileo has become a symbol of science persevering over ignorance and fear Specifically, Galileo is held up as a “martyr of science” who was persecuted and jailed for his beliefs Galileo=Good; Church=Bad o Conflict Thesis, par excellance Church Forced to Recant 1718: The Inquisition’s ban on Galileo’s published works (minus Dialogo) is lifted in Florence 1758 : Books advocating heliocentrism are removed from Index of Prohibited Books (Dialogo and De Revolutionibus are still censored) 1835: Both are dropped from Index 1939: Pope Pius XII praises Galileo as a hero 1992: Pope John Paul II issues declaration saying the Catholic Church committed errors in prosecuting Galileo 2008: Pope Benedict XVI praises Galileo for his contributions to the science of astronomy Protestant Reformation: Luther: The Friar Gifted Theologican, Teacher, Musician Commanding Personality Lutheranism Spread to German speaking lands of Northern Europe Scandinavian lands st Published document – 95 theses – on church door on October 31 because he knew that everyone was coming to town for All Saints Day Calvin: The Lawyer Austere, Analytical, Systematic as both theologian and leader Calvinism Religion Final Exam Review 2015 The most international form of Protestantism Centered in Geneva, Switzerland “Reformed” Churches: Swiss, French, Dutch “Presbyterians” – Scotland “…” – England Henry VII: The King Wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon (Spain) to marry Anne Boleyn so she could have a male heir Act of Supremacy (1534) The King is the Supreme Head of the Church of England Made the divorce simple resulted in the separation of the Catholic church from England (pope no longer in charge) Church of England Anglicanism Episcopalian Church U.S. Sibling of Church of England Menno Simons: The Priest From Friesland: province in the Northern Netherlands Founder of the Mennonites “Anabaptists” and “Rebaptizers” Radicals of the Reformation (most radical) Small Communities marked by “believers of Baptisms” wanted nothing to do with the church and the state wanted to passive Though these four Protestant groups were each different, they held to three shared principles, in “protest” against the Catholic Church of their day. Northern Europe became Protestant while Southern Europe stayed Catholic (for the majority). Three Principles of the Catholic Church The authority of the Pope The need for sacraments The privileged position of clergy o The priest, monk, friar, or nun Three Contrasting Principles of Luther (and Others) Sola Scriptura (Bible Alone) o Over against: authority of the Pope Sola Fide (Faith Alone) o Over against: need for sacraments Priesthood of all believers o Over against: privileged position of clergy Consequences of the Reformation Religion Final Exam Review 2015 Sola Scriptura Vernacular Bibles (propelled by the invention of the printing press) o German o English o French o And More Sola Fide Sermon becomes the focus of the worship o Sacrament moves to background o Every Sunday mass replaces by occasional Sunday communion Priesthood of all believers Congregational singing and election of church officers, elders, deacons Vernacular Bible Rise in Literacy Rates Sermon as Central Rise of Individualism individuals can interpret the bible their own way because now they can read the bible and often debate with the priest and community Congregational Singing religious equality; everyone can participate in the ceremonies; all equal in front of god democracy Election of Officers representative government Mary, Queen of Scots When she learned that John Knox had met secretly with the Presbyterian leaders she said “its suspicious that people meet without her knowledge and talk about information she knew nothing about” Summary of Cultural Consequences Due to the Reformation 1. Literacy 2. Individualism 3. Democracy 4. Representative Government Spirituality and Healthcare Outcomes In the last 15 years there has been resurgence in the interest in spirituality and healthcare Spirituality questions arise during illness such as meaning, value, and relationships 3377% of patients want their provider to discuss spiritual needs with them… impact or has an influence on “do NOT resuscitate” orders, cancer Rx and survival, acute or terminal illnesses, and patient assisted suicide 90% of medical schools today in the US include something about R/S in their curricula Religion. Spirituality, and Medicine: Research Finding and Implication for Clinical Practice Of 337 patients admitted to Duke – 90% stated they used religion to some extent; 40% said it was the MOST IMPORTANT factor that kept them going In the past religion was not looked at as relevant to health Relationship of Spirituality and Healthcare Affordable Care Act (ACA) Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Religion Final Exam Review 2015 JACHO o Joint commission requires that a spiritual history be obtained and accommodated from every patient but… Less than 10% of physicians address spiritual issues o Don’t have enough time o Feel uncomfortable What is Spirituality? Is it different from religion? Spirituality: an inherent quality of all human beings that drives the search for meaning and purpose in life, involves relationship with oneself and others and a transcendent dimension o Individual o Transcendent Religion: private (a denomination mostly practiced in private) or public (active member of religious congregation) o Community: shared beliefs o Morality o Rules/Code Attending church adds 7 years to lifespan Spiritual, but not religious agnosticism Atheism: Positive (religion and spirituality are bad and fake) or Negative (religion and spirituality are left alone) According to Sir William Osler, “Not all faith is (+) for faith in an angry or punitive deity does not usually produce (+) effects.” Some patients may see it as a punishment Instruments Measuring Spirituality in Clinical Research: A Systematic Spiritual wellbeing scale FACITSp Ironson woods spirituality religiousness scale o Predominately used for HIV patients Newberg, MD & Waldman state spiritual practices: Enhance cognition Contemplating God will increase neuroplasticity (the brains ability to rearrange itself) Will suppress the brain’s activity to react with anger or fear 65% increase in dopamine with meditation associated increase in sense of wellbeing Spirituality stimulates anterior cingulate activity Increased blood flow to frontal lobe and anterior cingulate Strengthens anterior cingulate activity while slowing down activity in the Amygdala Anterior Cingulate appears crucial for empathy and compassion Spirituality Practices… Increase serotonin Increase GABA Will suppress the brains activity to react with anger or fear Religion Final Exam Review 2015 Negative Findings Israeli Ischemic Heart Study o Those with religious education had highest rates of dementia at 27.1% compared to mixed at 12.6% and 16.1% for secular education American General Social Survey with data collected from 20082012 from 3210 participants o Atheists experienced religiosity more negatively than nonatheists o A non belief in God was not related to better or worse perceived global health Psychoneuroimmunology (PSNI) You’re psychology influences your nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system Difficulties/Limitations and Controversies of Studies Sample size Length of size Standardized scales Lack of randomization Selection bias Confounding factors Mind Body Therapies (MBT) and control of inflammatory biology The Study o Metaanalysis o 26 study review of MBT o four practices: tai chi, qigong, yoga, meditation The Results o Mixed results but did show genomic markers of decreased expression of inflammation related genes o 7 trials showed decreased inflammatory gene profiles o Many trials had small numbers, but were done during a short time period Mental/Sexual Health Studies Mental Health/Addition Significant decreases: anxiety, depression, stress, thoughts or suicide and/or attempts, cognitive decline, substance use/abuse Better quality of life, better coping strategies, anger management, and higher forgiveness, alcoholism recovery Sexual Health Safer sex practices and higher condom use, fewer sex partners and were less likely to have concurrent partnerships Oncology and Ethnicity Studies Oncology patients in USA and Iran (other many religions protestant, Jewish, Roman Catholic, Muslim) o Greater number of white cells, natural killer cell activity Adolescents & Medicine Studies Adolescents Religion Final Exam Review 2015 o Less suicidal behavior o Importance of spirituality as a protective factor Medicine o (+) physical health, BP, lipids, immune function o increasing rates of recovery In Summary: Multiple well designed studies that control for confounding factors have demonstrated that patients who attend religious services independent of denomination have better long term outcomes Going to church 3035% reduction in risk of death Religiosity and spirituality are associated with better mental health outcomes Spirituality has an impact on the patients ability to cope with illness Why should doctors address spiritual need in clinical practice Research findings + A desire to provide highquality care + Common sense All underscore the need to integrate spirituality into patient care Chapter 3: African Religion Introduction: No single theory within the African continent o Most religions (premodern) and few written records o Most of what is known collected by anthropologists and missionaries or remembered by past Africans Most African religions are polytheistic but common belief that beyond all minor gods, goddesses, spirits, and ancestors there is one High God, who created and in some sense still governs the universe Yoruba story of Olorun (West African nation of Nigeria): typical of African understandings of High God Nuer (Sudan) – High God = Kwoth Nhial continues to play a role in human life Most Africans regard the High God as too distant and too great to be concerned with human problems lesser spirits receive the greatest attention Lesser Gods: Africans believe universe populated by spirits as well as humans and animals o Human qualities given to inanimate nonliving objects o Forces can be beneficial or harmful, male or female, found in forces of nature o Humans try to understand the spirits to seek their favor Water often seen as a sacred element o Religious rituals, water must come from a sacred, living water source o Snakes often connected with water Nature gods, goddesses, and lesser spirits o Worship varies from elaborate systems of temple, priests and rituals to less formal worship conducted by individuals and family groups o Offering food or drink o Treated with signs of honor and respect Religion Final Exam Review 2015 o Yoruba goddess Osun is one of the most important and described as powerful, beautiful and graceful. Guardian of fertility of the land and birth of children Ancestors: Most Africans believe that departed family continue to live on in the spirit world and take an active interest in the well being of the living Consulted before major events Africans fear their ancestors as well as respect Ancestors often blamed for natural disasters Childlessness worst misfortune caused by anger of ancestor Ancestors believed to enforce social and moral codes Gifts and sacrifices often offered to ancestors o Land must be given to ancestors because ancestors own land Urban Africans continue these sacrificial traditions Ancestors communicate via dreams Diviners have the ability to contact ancestors Sacrifice Appease gods, goddesses, ancestors and provide transition through various stages of life Simple ritual acts maintain good relationships with spirits and ancestors Animal sacrifice on more serious occasions Human sacrifice rarely part of African religions o Only occur in extremely serious occasions Rites of Passage Birth, puberty, marriage, death Birth of child – great rejoicing o In many societies – children not named within the first week (high infant mortality rate) o Naming ceremony followed by showing the child to the moon Youngsters receive instructions about their roles in society as they reach puberty instructions change (boys and girls separate) Initiation ceremonies (months years) o Boys: harsh physical trials, ritual circumcision o Girls: separated, fattened up o In recent years initiation ceremonies have declined After puberty rites and initiation adulthood (marriage, job, children) Marriage: secular contracts between families o Virginity is highly prized o Polygamy practice among many African elites Death surrounded by rituals o Want dead to live comfortably in the afterlife so they do not come back to haunt the living o Burial is the most common practice o Illness, death, and misfortune do not just happen caused by witchcraft/foul play o African religions do not have a concept of judgment and retribution after death Religion Final Exam Review 2015 Religious Leaders No major need for religious functionaries but there are some Spiritual curer: job to find the cause of the illness and prescribe a cure by divination and a combination of spiritual powers, offerings, and herbal remedies Acholi of Uganda: o Evil spirits cause a person to become ill: jok o The healer: ajwaka Modern medicine developed from herbalism and divination Diviner: use spiritual powers and knowledge to find the causes of present misfortunes, past secrets, and things to come o Cast shells of nuts to form a pattern, then read the pattern to find the answer they seek (256 patterns connected with poems containing messages) Prophet: speaks for the gods, gain power from personalities and message, seldom have successors ChiefKing: tribal connection the ancestors, revered as the living symbol of the tribe o Must be healthy otherwise the whole tribe is considered to be sick NonNative African Religions Egypt Greek influence in North Africa Christianity (late displaced by Islam) Christianities and Islams of Africa have distinctive African qualities Religion Final Exam Review 2015
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