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by: Stephanie Belo

CHMCh1&2.pdf CHM2045

Marketplace > Chemistry > CHM2045 > CHMCh1 2 pdf
Stephanie Belo
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About this Document

These notes cover Ch. 1 and 2 for Exam 1 of Mitchell's class, including sample problems, definitions, and what is needed to know for the exam.
Chemistry 1
John Mitchell
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Belo on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM2045 at a university taught by John Mitchell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
CHM  2045:  Chapter  1  &  2             1/8/16   Chapter  1   • Physical  property  –  A  characteristic  shown  by  a  substance  itself,  without   interacting  with  or  changing  into  other  substances.   • Chemical  property  –  A  characteristic  of  a  substance  that  appears  as  it  interacts   with,  or  transforms  into,  other  substances.   • Homogeneous  Mixture     •  Homogeneous  mixtures  have  only  one  phase,  or  have  a  uniform  appearance   throughout,  and  any  portion  of  the  sample  has  the  same  properties  and   composition.     • Heterogeneous  Mixture     •  A  heterogeneous  mixture  is  made  of  different  substances  that  remain   physically  separate.     • Allotrope:  one  of  two  or  more  existing  forms  of  an  element   o Ex.  Diamond  &  graphite   • Dimensional  analysis  problem  solving-­‐  use  conversion  factors     o Ex.  If  the  avg.  distance  from  the  sun  to  the  earth  is  96  million  miles.  With   light  traveling  at  2.99  *  10^8  m/s  how  many  minutes  does  it  take  for   light  to  travel  from  the  sun  to  the  earth?  (1  km  =  0.6215  mile,  or  1  mi  =   1.609  km)   o 96  *  10^6  miles  *  1.6093  km/1  mile  *  1000m/1km  *  1s/2.99*10^8  m  *  1   min/60  s  =  8.610  min  à  8.6  min  (use  2  significant  figures—go  with  the   least  amount  of  sig  figs  in  the  given  problem)   Significant  Figures  Rules   1.  All  numbers  other  than  zero  are  significant  (ex.  243  has  3  sig  figs)   2.  Leading  zeros:     a)  Zeros  in  front  don’t  count  (ex.  0.00007  only  has  1  sig  fig)     b)  Zeros  that  are  at  the  end  of  a  number  and  also  to  the  right  of  the  decimal   are  significant.       c)  Zeros  between  other  significant  digits  are  significant.  (ex.  2004  has  4  sig   figs)     d)  Zeros  at  the  end  of  a  number  are  not  significant  if  there’s  no  decimal  in  the   number.  (ex.  2000  just  has  1  sig  fig)     Last  point:  counting  numbers  and  conversions  have  an  infinite  number  of  sig   figs   Addition  and  Subtraction  Significant  Figures  Rules     The  answer  has  the  number  decimal  places  equal  to  the  number  w  the  fewest   digits  after  the  decimal.     Ex.  0.12  +  1.9  +  10.925  =  12.945  à  Answer:  12.9  (only  1  decimal  place  b/c  of   1.9)   Multiplication  and  Division  Sig  Fig  Rules     The  answer  has  the  number  of  sig.  figs.  Equal  to  the  number  w  the  fewest  sig   figs.     Ex.  0.01208/0.236  =  0.512   *Know  SI  prefixes  (giga,  nano,  pico,  deca,  etc.)   Chapter  2  Atomic  Structure:   Know:  avg.  atomic  weight,  how  to  read  periodic  table  (Groups,  families,  metals,   nonmetals,  metalloids),  the  7  diatomics  MUST  KNOW:  H ,  N ,  O ,  F ,  Cl ,  Br ,  I   2 2 2 2 2 2 2 –Have  No  Fear  of  Ice  Cold  Beer   Atomic  Structure   • Atoms  have  no  net  charge   o Ions  (Na ,  Cl )  must  be  declared   Atomic  Composition   A  Z  –  the  symbol  of  the  atom  or  isotope   X  =  Atomic  symbol  of  the  element   A  =  mass  number  (A  =  Z  +  N  –  protons  plus  neutrons)   Z  =  atomic  number  (#  of  protons  in  the  nucleus   N  =  #  of  neutrons  in  the  nucleus   2   Atomic  Number  (Z)  and  Mass  (A)   • We  can  only  get  the  relative  mass  of  an  atom,  that  is  relative  to  one   another   • Example  of  relative:  The  mass  of  an  oxygen  atom  is  1.333  times  more   massive  than  an  atom  of  Carbon.   • We  base  everything  against  C-­‐12  (Carbon  w  6  protons  and  6  neutrons)  in   chemistry  just  like  we  base  weight  in  the  US  against  the  pound.   • The  decimal  number  is  the  Atomic  mass   o The  Atomic  Mass  and  is  equal  to  the  mass,  in  atomic  mass  units   (amu)  (1/12  of  a  C-­‐12  atom)  of  the  element.   Isotopes   • Isotopes  have  the  same  number  of  protons  but  different  number  of   neutrons   • Bc  of  the  existence  of  isotopes,  the  mass  of  a  collection  of  atoms  has  an   average  value   • Average  mass  =  ATOMIC  WEIGHT   • Boron  is  19.9%  B-­‐10  and  80.1%  B-­‐11.  That  is,  B-­‐11  is  80.1  percent  abundant   on  earth.   o (0.199  *  10.0  amu)  +  (0.801  *  11  amu)  =  10.8  (ßfrom  periodic  table!)   • Exam  Isotope  question   o Boron  has  2  stable  isotopes  w  masses  of  10.00  amu  and  11.00  amu.   What  is  the  percent  abundance  of  each  isotope?  (Note:  simple  low   sig.  fig.  numbers  used  in  this  example.  Exam  questions  will  have  6  sig   figs  in  the  masses.)   o (x  *  10  amu)  +  (y  *  11.0  amu)  =  10.8   Total  %  =  100%  =  1   x  +  y  =  1   x  =  1  –  y   ((1-­‐y)  *  10)  +  (y  *  11)  =  10.8   3   y  =  1  –  x  (when  solving  for  x  use  this)   Nomenclature   • If  it’s  in  the  textbook  you  are  responsible  for  the  nomenclature   • NaCl,  salt  =  ionic  compound  (atoms  all  jammed  together,  little  space   between  them)   • Ethanol,  C H O 2 =6  molecular  compound  (atoms  more  spread  out)   Condensed  formula-­‐  groups  atoms  next  to  where  they  are  bound  (ex.  CH OH)   3 Empirical  formula-­‐  a  formula  giving  the  proportions  of  the  elements  present  in  a   compound  but  not  the  actual  numbers  or  arrangement  of  atoms   Know  Methane,  ethane…..decane     Ionic  Compound,  Formulas,  Names,  and  Properties   • If  first  element  in  a  compound  is  a  metal,  then  the  compound  is  ionic   • Na SO (2odium4  ulfate)  would  be  ionic   • PCl  =  molecules  bc  phosphorus  is  not  a  metal   5 Al2(SO4)3  =  aluminum  sulfate  –NOT  aluminum  (III)  sulfate  (it’s  an  “always”)     4  


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