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Chapter 1 And 2(methods only)

by: Katherine Szpuk

Chapter 1 And 2(methods only) PSY 309

Marketplace > Eastern Michigan University > Psychlogy > PSY 309 > Chapter 1 And 2 methods only
Katherine Szpuk
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

these notes contain chapter 1 an part of chapter 2 containing methods of social psych.
Social Psychology
Stephen Jefferson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Szpuk on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 309 at Eastern Michigan University taught by Stephen Jefferson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Eastern Michigan University.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Chapter 1: What is Social Psychology?  Social Psychology: A study of ways in which people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by real or imagined presence of others. -Humans in isolation die slowly. -Deteriorate mentally and physically Difference Between Social Psychology and Personality Psychology  Personality psychology emphasizes “individual differences”. -Aspect of people’s personalities that make them different.  Social psych emphasizes group pressure and external factors that influence behaviors of individuals. -Factors produce different behaviors in different settings. Difference Between Social Psychology and Sociology  Sociology: Broad social, economic, political and historical factors that impact events in a given society. -Focus on society, not individuals.  Social psych interested in how people are influenced by social environment. Roots  Social Cognition Perspective: Focuses on how people perceive, remember, and interpret events and individuals in social world including themselves. -Studying social psych can expand and enrich understanding of self, social sphere and world events. Instinct Based View of Human Behavior  Spencer: Extended Darwin’s theory- societies evolve just as organisms do. -Creatures who are better adapted are more likely to reproduce, however it doesn’t matter how well adapted an organism is if it doesn’t reproduce.  McDougall: Influenced by Spencer, published first social psych text Introduction to Social Psychology, in 1908. Proposed instinctively determined human behavior (behavior is determined by instinct).  Instinct: Complex behaviors that we do not usually think. They are unlearned. -Species specific behaviors occur at the same time in the same way across all members of the species. Ex: Birds making nests -What instinct do humans have? -Humans do not have instinct. Closest thing to instinct is language. Roots of Social Psychology  Psychoanalytic Theory: -Freud claimed that human behavior is directed by aggression and sexual desires. -Kept unconscious by repression until transformed into socially acceptable behaviors. -People do things for unconscious reasons.  Behaviorism: -Watson argued that only overt behavior can be directly observed and measured. -Human behavior predominantly determined by nature of experiences in response to environmental demands. -function of learning and experiences. Emergence of Modern Social Psychology  Dewey: Contended human behavior determined by instinct and experience and is influenced by unconscious and conscious processes. -Stressed uniquely existential concerns of humans  Allport: Integrated study of consciousness, experimental techniques of behaviorism, advances learned from psychoanalysis, and the ideas from evolutionary theory. -Interested in how humans apply learning to promote constructive individual and social change. 4 Trends Combined with the Social Cognitive Perspective  Evolutionary Perspective: Views social behavior as a consequence of evolutionary adaption. -Problems with Evolutionary perspective: all “post talk”, cannot do experiments, only correlational research. -All theoretical -Can reinforce negative social patterns.  Cultural Perspective: Focuses on how culture effects (typically heavily) thinking and behavior. Ex: Western country adapted to sitting on toilet- not squatting while defecating.  Existential Perspective: focuses on basic human concerns. -Very dark views i.e. nothing after death.  Neuroscience Perspective: Focuses on understanding reciprocal influences of biological systems and social processes. 4 Core Assumptions of Social Psychology 1. Behavior is a joint product of the person and the situation. -Personality dispositions and situational factors interact to determine thoughts, feelings, and actions. -Focus centers on what types of situations lead particular types of persons to behave in specific ways. 2. Behavior depends on socially constructed view of reality. -All human thoughts, feelings and actions are socially constructed. -Self-understanding involves social comparisons. 3. Behavior is strongly influenced by our social cognition. -The way each individual understands other people despite their accuracy of understanding has a powerful influence on that individual’s social behavior. 4. The best way to understand social behavior is to use the scientific method. -Scientific method provides basis for how social psychologists accumulate knowledge regarding determinants of human thoughts, feelings and actions.  Construe: How we perceive, comprehend, and interpret the world. -How we perceive stimuli influences how we respond to it. -Mismatch = anger, anxiety, humor (Key and Peele text message video), etc. 2 Motives People Share 1. The need to feel good about themselves. -Willing to justify past behaviors (particularly if they aren’t good behaviors) to maintain a positive sense of self. 2. The need to be accurate/ correct. -People like to be right about things. -Hate looking foolish, incompetent. Methods  Correlational Method: Relation between two variables. -Positive correlation: When one variable goes up/down, the other does the same motion (up or down). -Negative correlation: When one variable goes up/down, the other variable does the opposite. -Spurious correlation: Two variables occur together but because of a third variable. -Illusory correlation: Perception of relationship where none exists.  Experimentation: The investigator manipulates one or more independent variables to observe effect on behavior or mental process (dependent variable).  Psychology is an inductive study  Inductive: Goes from specific to general. -Studies a (sub)sample and applies findings to the general population.  Deductive: Goes from general to specific. Random Assignment -Assign participants to experimental and control groups by chance. -Minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to different groups.


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