Chapter 1 HDF 100
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joey Ross on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Shannon Sexton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Human Development at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
Highlighted: Fill in the blank notes given before class Typed: additional notes from lecture in class Histories, Theories and Methods Chapter One Class QUESTION: Why is the knowledge of development so important? So we understand the stages of what is coming or should be so we can be warned on what we should look for. 100 years ago: o Average life expectancy: 47 o Leading causes of death Pneumonia Diarrhea Flu o 95% of births were conducted at the home o 14% of homes had bathtubs • In ancient times children were treated as property and servants . • When children were seven they were considered to be the age of reason and expected to work like an adult. • Let’s think about this… • A child who is 7 now is nd • In 2 grade • Protected by child abuse and neglect laws • Child labor laws • And cannot marry until they are 16 • Must attend school until they are 16 • During the Industrial Revolution, family life came to be defined as _nuclear unit of mother, father_ and children • Children became more visible during this time, although they continued to work in factories until the 20 century. Developmental Theories • Maturation View – Arnold Gessell Maturation following an inherited timetable ; abilities and skills emerge in a preordained sequence (Arnold Gessell) Believed in “nature”, a set time table to develop Maturation View • In his view, the organization of behavior begins well before birth and proceeds from head to foot. • This doesn't mean that everyone learns everything at exactly the same rate, just more or less in the in the same order. Psychoanalytic Perspective • In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous and anxiety disorders. • This led Freud to develop the first comprehensive theory • of personality which included, the Unconscious mind, Psychosexual stages and Defense mechanisms. • Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasureseeking energies of the ID become focused on certain erogenous areas. • This psychosexual energy was described as the driving force behind behavior. • If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the_____________________________________________________ . • If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage,__________________________________________________ . • Psychoanalytic Perspective – • Conflict between external demands and internal desires of child results in hidden battles • Focuses on repression and unconscious forces and includes the division of the psyche into the • Id • Ego, and • Superego *Important! • ID Id represents biological demand and instant gratification present at birth The mind of a newborn child is regarded as completely "idridden“ The id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration of the reality of the situation. Within the next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world, the second part of the personality begins to develop, the ego. Ego example: Crying for food as a three year old and not getting what they want after a tantrum; Also view of older children disapproving • EGO Ego is conscious and seeks gratification but avoids social disapproval The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. It controls the IDS DRIVE FOR IMMEDIATE SATISFATION until an appropriate outlet can be found It’s the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation EGO WORKING FOR ID: Yankees player demands a ridiculous among of money. The “ego” sports manager, says the debate on looking at stats and still gaining enough money but at a better way then demanding. • SUPEREGO Superego is conscious and monitors the intentions and behavior of ego by allowing guilt and shame for behavior The Superego is the moral part and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. Our conscience usually comes from our parents or a parental figure. Choosing to hear their voice in the back of your head ID: WANT IT NOW EGO:PLANNING SUPEREGO: OTS NOT RIGHT As we grow, we______________________________________________ . These standards are what make us feel guilty when we tell a lie or cheat. • Contributions of Freudian Theory Influenced how child care workers approach infants, toddlers and preschoolers Influenced teachers’ sensitivity to students’ emotional needs Influenced the stage models of other theorists such as Erikson • Behavorism: John B. Watson felt that a scientific approach to development must focus on observable behavior not on things like thoughts and mental images. Example: I saw this happen, and showed a reaction Watson believed he could cause the baby to feel however he wanted Example: Brings a rat in with encouragement and believed the rat was okay, then later bringing the rat and Watson hit a pole when the baby reached for the rat later making him scared of the rat and crying eventually after the reputably brought the rat in. In Pavlov’s experiment, he rang a bell as he fed dogs. Each time the dogs heard the bell they knew that a meal was coming, and they would begin to salivate. Pavlov then rang the bell without bringing food, but the dogs still salivated. They had been ”conditioned” to salivate at the sound of a bell. Pavlov believed, as Watson was later to emphasize, that humans react to stimuli in the same way. Decondition: To ring the bell and no longer bring the food • Operant Conditioning – Developed by Skinner; method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Example: Child learns that a Grade “A” gets them praised by their parents and therefore they try harder for the “A”. • Person will engage in a behavior that reinforces . • Reinforcement • Positive reinforcers – increases the frequency of behaviors when they are APPLIED (ex. Food and approval) Example: Giving a treat for dog training as positive reinforcment • Negative reinforcers • Negative reinforcers – increases the frequency of behaviors when they are removed (ex. Fear of failure is removed when one studies for their test) • Strengthens a behavior because a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behavior. Example: Fear of failing Example: Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for the most of us. You leave home earlier then usual one morning, and don’t run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning to relieve from stress. • Extinction –Is a process of eliminating a behavior by stopping the delivery of reinforcers responsible for maintaining the behavior Example: Childs temper tantrum stops when parents leaves and says calm down until you can talk normal • Punishment Example: Ticket from police officer Adversive events that decrease the frequency of the behavior they follow Does not suggest alternative behavior Suppresses undesirable behavior only when its delivery is guaranteed Example: Don’t say something if you can’t enforce or go through; “If you don’t shut up I am going to turn this car around!” – (Headed to Disney) • CognitiveDevelopmental Theory • Scheme is a pattern of action that organizes knowledge. Example: To shower; turn the water on, shampoo, conditioner • As the child interacts with their world and acquires more experiences these schemes are modified to make sense of the new experience. • Child has a sucking scheme. Example: Breastfeeding • The child acquires more experiences and these schemes are modified to make sense. Example: High School to College: High School Scheme is thrown out the window when coming to College. Trying to make sense of a previous scheme in a new scheme does not work well • New information interacts with preexisting schemes through three processes: Assimilation, Accommodation, and Equilibration • Assimilation – process of responding to new objects or events according to existing schemes Example: Child may approach a strange dog and pat it like he is your own dog • Accommodation –altering existing schemes, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. Example: Child calling a Zebra a Horse, because that’s what they know. Then the parent or adult will explain the difference and why it’s a Zebra. Example of Assimilation and Accommodation: When the first plane hit the tower of 911 what kind of schema did most of us have? What were your first thoughts? Accident: A lot of news reporters talked about the accident that had just happened We ASSIMILATED that it was an accident We later ACCOMIDATED the information after the next plane and understood that it wasn’t an accident • Biological Perspective (Nature Based) • Darwin Theorist • Studying the physical basis for animal and human behavior. Biological perspective states that all behavior has a physiological root (evolution) and that a lot of human behavior patterns are based on genetics Temperament Biological driven/genetic based • Example: Always an extravert, will never be confortable being a introvert • Sleep Cycles are examples are biological perspective • Example: Always requiring 9 hours of sleep, coming to college and only having 34 you wont ever feel completely awake • ******Fixed action Patterns***** – built in or instinctive behaviors; example, birds migrating to same place • Example: Doctor hits the knee, you have a FIXED ACTION PATTERN to bounce your knee • Example: Birds knowing when to go south, and returning to the same area without a plan • Example: Sea turtles, hatched on a beach, automatically move toward the ocean • Ecological Perspective (Nurture Based) • Developed by Bronfenbrenner; • Systems approach recognizing that there are systems imbedded in other systems which influence behavior and development • (Example: the behavior of a child is influenced by parents, peers, teachers, social groups, socio economic status, etc.) Bronfenbrenner’s Systems Approach Shows a Chart that’s also on the bottom of Pg 13 in your book • Microsystem – interactions of the child with other people in the immediate setting such as the home, school or peer group • Having the most direct influence, daily involvement • Microsystems may change • These are the people closest to a child. • Mesosystem –interaction of various settings with the microsystem such as the parentteacher conference or the school field trip to the zoo • Blending two systems • Example: (Bridging the Gap) Parent volunteering at school • Exosystem – institutions which indirectly affect the development of the child such as the school board or the parent’s place of employment • Example: Parents Employment (Doesn’t influence her everyday) • Example: Travel for Job/ Big Bonus • Example: Year round school • Macrosystem – involves the interaction of the child with the beliefs, expectations, and lifestyle of their cultural setting. • Example: Liberal community/ Catholic community (Indirect impact) Additional Chronosystem not discussed in class • Sociocultural Perspective • Developed by Vygotsky • Focus is on the transmission of information and cognitive skills from Generation to Generation. • Learning consists of social engagement from a more skilled individual to a lesser skilled individual • Example: an older sibling teaching a younger sibling to ride a bike. • Example: Teaching a math equation • Zone of Proximal Development refers to a range of tasks that a child can carry out with the help of a more skilled apprentice, teacher, parent, older sibling. • Example: mearging to the next skill with support: Taking training wheels off a bike • Scaffolding – • Problem solving methods such as cues provided to the child to increase independent functioning • A teacher gives aid to the student in her/his ZPD as necessary, and tapers off this aid as it becomes unnecessary, much as a scaffold is removed from a building during construction. • Example: Visual Aids • Example: Fingers for counting • Nature/Nurture Controversy • Age old question of which is more influential in development – nature (heredity) • Or nurture (environmental influences)? • Nature: Natural causes of development studied are genetic heritage (twin studies used frequently), the functioning of the nervous system and maturation • Genetic • Family Diseases • Nurture: Enviornment causes of development studied are nutrition, cultural and familial backgrounds, educational opportunities, cognitive stimulation during early childhood and formal education • Watson • Learned behavior • Parenting Styles Chart to study Quiz: 1/25/2016 5 Questions Multiple Choice
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