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week 2 notes

by: Paige Notetaker

week 2 notes GEOG 1111

Paige Notetaker

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Lectures 5, 6 and 7
Intro to Physical Geography
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Notetaker on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1111 at University of Georgia taught by Hopkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Intro to Physical Geography in Geography at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Geography notes- Lecture 5 RADIATION/ENERGY BALANCE ENERGY is the ability or capacity to do work on some form of matter. Potential energy is the energy of an object prior to it being released         as free energy, commonly called the energy at rest. Kinetic energy is the free energy of motion or action. Heat energy is the kinetic energy generated by all the motion of molecules. It is measured as the sum total of all molecular motion of an object. Radiant energy is the energy transferred as electromagnetic waves by all objects with a Tº > 0ºK (-273ºC or absolute zero). *  Energy follows the Laws of Thermodynamics:           First Law of Thermodynamics:  In all physical & chemical changes         energy is neither created nor destroyed, but it may be converted         from one form to another.       (Law of Conservation of Energy)           Second Law of Thermodynamics:  When energy is changed from         one form to another, some of the useful energy is always degraded         to lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energy.  Properties of Radiant Energy or Radiation:     *  Light, heat, radio, X-rays, etc. are all part of the         electromagnetic spectrum or radiation.     *  All objects with a Tº > 0ºK emit radiation with the amount of         energy emitted dependent on the Tº of the object.     *  Hotter objects emit more total energy than cooler objects and the hotter the emitting body, the shorter the wavelength     *  The Sun's maximum energy is radiated at .5 micrometers         & its Tº = 6000º K (5700° C or 10,300° F). This Solar         Radiation is also called Shortwave (SW) Radiation.     *  The Earth's maximum energy is radiated at 10 micrometers         & its Tº = 300ºK (15° C or 59° F). This Terrestrial Radiation         is also called Longwave (LW) Radiation. SOLAR RADIATION:     *  Shortwave (SW) radiation is designated as those wavelengths of         the electromagnetic spectrum which are ~1 micron and smaller.     *  Visible light is in the wavelengths from .4 microns (violet) to         .7 microns (red). The Sun emits wavelengths from about ~.2         to 8 micrometers.     * As it passes through Earth’s atmosphere, it may be scattered,         reflected, or absorbed, or reach the surface. This affect the         transfer of this radiant energy to other forms, both within the         atmosphere and at the ground surface.   Scattering   is the process of incoming solar radiation (SW) being redirected from its original path by particles in the atmosphere       *  Gas molecules scatter blue & violet SW better than longer waves             waves such as red or orange which affects the sky color we see.     *  Some of this is redirected back into space and that energy is lost         to the Earth.   Reflection is the process whereby a surface turns back a portion of the radiation that strikes it. It essentially “bounces-off” the object.     *  Radiation follows the Law of Reflection which states that the angle         of incidence (incoming) = the angle of reflection (outgoing). Albedo is the term to describe the % of radiation reflected off a surface compared to the incident radiation striking it.     *  TheAlbedo of a surface/object will vary dependent on its         composition, color, roughness and the sun angle.     *  Approximately 31% of all incoming SW from the Sun is reflected back to space, so the average planetaryAlbedo is 31. and this again this is lost energy.             *  Other examples:  thick clouds 70-80,    thin clouds 30-50,           fresh snow 80-85, old snow 50-60, forest 5-10, grass 20-25,         dry earth 15-25, water 3-5 (high sun altitude) to 50-80 (low sun altitude)   Absorption is the process whereby some of the energy of incoming SW radiation is transferred into the object being struck.      This energy is transferred as (changed to) heat energy, as it increases the         internal molecular motion of the object/substance.     *  Since heat energy is increasing in the object, so will the temperature of the substance/ object increase.     *  Substances in the atmosphere with high absorptive characteristics             for SW include O2, O3, & H2O, however, overall the atmosphere is             a poor absorber of incoming SW.     Absorption is the opposite of reflection.   *  So, of the 100% of incoming radiation from the Sun that hits the top         of the atmosphere:     ** ~45% reaches the Earth’s surface and is absorbed       **  ~24% is absorbed by the atmosphere (clouds, gases, dust)     **  ~31% is loss to space by reflection & scattering TERRESTRIALRADIATION:     *  Longwave (LW) radiation is designated as those wavelengths of             the electromagnetic spectrum which are ~1 micron and larger.     *  Earth emits radiant energy at wavelengths generally in the 1-30             micrometers range or in the infrared portion of the spectrum.     *  It can be scattered, reflected and absorbed, and CO & H 2 are 2             very good absorbers of these wavelengths.       *  Water vapor absorbs 5X what all the other gases do     *  Some of the LW radiation emitted by the Earth is thus “trapped” by             these and other gasses in the atmosphere. This process is commonly             called the Greenhouse Effect and what heats the lower atmosphere             and thus the Earth.     *  This Greenhouse Effect causes the atmosphere to be heated from the             ground up as the LW radiation is "bounced" back & forth between the             atmosphere (clouds, dust, and Greenhouse Gasses) & the ground.     *  This helps to keep the Earth's average Tº some 35º C warmer             than it would be otherwise.           with Greenhouse Gasses         without them                 15ºC (59ºF)                         -18ºC (0ºF) *The actual process of warming the atmosphere is a little more         complicated than the simple Greenhouse Effect. The basic         Greenhouse Effect does not incorporate the effect of air moving         vertically (convection) or horizontally (advection or wind) and         thus a more accurate term is the Atmospheric Effect. *The process of Global Warming is basically an enhanced Greenhouse Effect, or what I like to call, the Greenhouse Effect on “Overload” Geography notes- lecture 6 HEAT energy is measured as the total kinetic energy of all the atoms & molecules of an object or substance. (Remember temperature is the average kinetic energy.)   Acalorie is the term which refers to the heat required to raise the Tº
     of 1 gram of water by 1ºC. Heat is often measured in calorie units.
  Heat Transfer is by 3 primary mechanisms:
     Conduction,   Convection,   Radiation
 Conduction is the process of transferring heat through matter molecule by molecule. This is done by direct contact & transfer from one molecule to the next.     EX:  Heat one end of a metal rod and some of that energy will 
             be passed molecule by molecule to the other end.
     *  Some substances will more easily transfer heat via conduction than others, 
         solids (most metals) for example, and these are known as conductors of
         heat. Substances which are poor transferors of heat (air for example) are 
         known as insulators.
     * As heat energy flows thru a substance, it will flow from an area         of higher Tº toward an area of lower Tº.
     * An important mechanism for heating the Earth’s surface (the ground) and the air in contact with the surface, but not high into the atmosphere.  Convection is the process of transferring heat through matter by mass movement of material within the substance.Aportion of the material is heated and in mass moves thru the substance.     EX: As water in a pan is heated on a stove, a small portion at the bottom of 
             the pan is heated and in mass moves toward the top of the pan.  
     *  This is the most important mechanism of heat transfer in the 
         atmosphere. This transfer of energy from the surface up into the 
         atmosphere is comprised of 2 processes or methods,
         Sensible Heat Flux  &  Latent Heat Flux
     *  Sensible heat flux is the process of transferring energy using the dry          components/molecules of the air (O2, CO2, N2, etc.).
      *  Latent heat flux is the process of transferring energy using water         vapor molecules or the processes of evaporation and condensation.
   **  Latent heat is the heat energy added to a substance without changing the temperature of the substance, BUT changing the state of the substance (solid to liquid to gas, etc.)     EX:  It takes a specific amount of calories (energy) to raise the temperature 
             of a molecule of substance, but then an additional amount to change it 
             from a solid to a liquid, or a liquid to a gas. The molecules will store 
             this energy and then release it when changing from a gas to a liquid, 
             or a liquid to a solid. 
 Radiation is the wavelike transfer of energy.
     EX:  the use of UV radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, etc.
 EARTH’S HEAT BUDGET refers to how the Earth system balances     the energy of incoming (solar or SW) radiation with outgoing
     (terrestrial or LW) radiation. It also encompasses all the various 
     pathways and types of energy involved within the Earth system.  
   *   If there was no balance of incoming and outgoing energy, then Earth would be too cold or too hot.
 Q* = net radiation = (SW↓ - SW↑) + (LW↓ - LW↑) =
                                incoming ( ↓ ) minus outgoing ( ↑ )
 Q* =     Q G              H      +         LE         ground           sensible             latent         heat                heat                   heat         flux                flux                    flux   (conduction)  (dry convection)  (evaporation/condensation)    *  This balance involves both a temporal (over time) and spatial         (over an area/space) component. It will vary with time periods
         (daily, monthly, annually, etc.) and in different areas of the Earth.
     **  day  vs.  night,     summer  vs.  winter
     **  tropics   vs.   polar regions
 *  There exists a horizontal (spatial) imbalance of energy over the Earth’s surface which leads to a surplus in the tropics and a deficit at the poles. The Earth system prefers a status of equilibrium, so it tries to balance this imbalance. 
   *  Energy is redistributed by moving excess energy from one place to another         across the Earth’s surface. Fluids are the most efficient method to do this         and the two primary fluids on the Earth are water and air. Energy is         thus moved via:     Atmospheric circulation (winds) &     Oceanic circulation  (currents)   *  Most heat transfer takes place between 30º - 50º latitude N & S         (the Mid-Latitudes) & a large portion of the stormy weather we         receive in the U.S. is attributable to this transfer of heat energy.   *  Q LE is most important in the humid tropics.   *  Q SH is most important in the arid tropics. Geography notes- Lecture 7 TEMPERATURE (T°): is measured as the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules of an object or substance. (Remember heat is the total kinetic energy.)         *  When the atoms of a substance or object are moving faster this
         means greater kinetic energy, which means the substance will have
         a higher Tº.
     *  Tº is NOT heat such that the amount of HEAT energy in one object
         or substance may be different than another, but they have the same
     EX: An 8 oz. glass of water and a filled bath tub can have the
             same Tº, but will not have the same amount of heat energy
             because of different volumes.
 **  T° Scales:                    Celsius         Fahrenheit        Kelvin freezing pt of water            0°                  32°               273° boiling pt of water         100°                212°               373° range             100°                180°               100°   * 0°K = no molecular motion  or   absolute zero which =  -273°C = -459° F *  C° = (F° - 32°) x 5/9             F° = (C° x 9/5) + 32°                     K = C + 273    or    C = K - 273  Isotherm: refers to a line on a map or chart which connects points of equal temperature     Factors which Control T°s at the Earth's Surface   Receipt of Solar Radiation refers to the amount of solar radiation a     location receives. This is determined by the locations latitude. On an 
     annual basis, lower latitudes (closer to 0º, the Equator) receive more
     solar radiation than higher latitudes. This is the primary control of temperatures at the Earth’s surface. Differential Heating of Land and Water Surfaces:     **   Land surfaces cool and warm more quickly than water surfaces, and to lower and higher temperatures because:        *  Water is more transparent (SW can pass thru it), while land          is opaque (thus SW does not pass thru it). Thus the solar
         energy striking the land only needs to transfer energy to the top
         portion of the ground, but it must try to ‘heat-up’a greater 
         volume of water.
      *  The specific heat of water is 3X greater than land.
         Specific heat is the heat needed to raise 1 gm of a substance 1 degree C.
      * Evaporation from water is greater than land, so energy is used to evaporate the water and not just raise the temperature 
      *  Water turbulence & movement causes water that has been heated to be 
         replaced by cooler water that has to be heated. This movement will be both 
         horizontal & vertical. SO, it takes more solar energy (sunlight) to heat up water than it does the same amount of land     *  Water thus has a moderating influence on T° such that average
         monthly T°s of a location near a large water body will not vary as
         much between summer and winter compared to a location far away
         from an ocean. 
     * Inland locations show greater T° variation between winter and summer. This is the idea of continentality. Geographic Setting & Position refers to the temperature differences brought about by a location being on one side of a continent versus the other.    *  This is related to a locations relationship to wind patterns, and
         whether that wind is coming off a large water body or a large 
         land surface. This is the idea of windward vs. leeward side of a         continent.
     *  Windward refers to the side/direction the wind is coming from, and Leeward refers to the side/direction the wind is going toward.    *  For NorthAmerica Windward is the West Coast (and thus the
         wind is coming off a water surface) and 
         Leeward is the East Coast (and thus the wind is coming off a
         land surface).
    Ocean Currents                            *  Will influence air temperatures of both the ocean area and adjoining land         area where the current is located.                       *  Warm currents will help keep the temperature higher than it would be without the current. This is especially true in winter.        EX:  Gulf Stream helps keep the British Isles a little warmer                 than they would be without it.     *  Cold currents will help keep the temperature lower than it would be without the current. This is especially true in summer.        EX:  California Current helps keep the U.S. west coast a little                 cooler than it would be without the current.        *  Ocean current patterns will also influence precipitation patterns.      Elevation influences Tº simply because within the troposphere as         elevation/altitude increases, Tº normally decreases.         *  Locations at higher elevations usually have lower average annual temperatures compared to lower locations   Cloud Cover & Albedo affect surface temperatures by controlling the         levels of solar and terrestrial radiation at the Earth’s surface.     *  Clouds trap-in terrestrial radiation keeping the surface warmer             (Greenhouse Effect), but they will also reflect solar radiation             coming in causing the surface to be cooler. Thus:     cloudy day  vs  clear day;   cloudy night  vs  clear night     * Acloudy day is usually cooler than a clear day         * Acloudy night is usually warmer than a clear night   Worldwide T° Patterns  *  The variations in temperature seen across the Earth’s surface are
         controlled by the above factors, with one of the key factors 
         being the proportion of land to water over the Earth's surface.
         The Southern Hemisphere has a higher percentage of water 
         than does the Northern Hemisphere.
     *  Southern Hemisphere:  81% water,  19% land
     *  Tº variations & range are smaller.
     *  Northern Hemisphere:  61% water,  39% land
     *  Greater Tº variations over the land surfaces.
     *  Greater winter time variations with latitude than summer.
     **  Coldest Tº's are usually over land at high latitudes in winter.
             EX:   Siberia andAntarctica
     **  Warmest Tº's are usually in the tropical deserts in summer.
             EX:   Sahara
   Wind Chill Temperature Index refers to the effect of wind and         temperature on a person’s body which can lead to increased heat
         loss from the body and a lowering of body T°. The wind moves heat
         generated by the body away from the body, thus the body has to work
         harder to generate more heat.
     * Astronger wind  =  greater heat loss.
     *  Can lead to hypothermia.   Heat Index refers to the effect of humidity and temperature on a         person’s body which can lead to an increase of body T°. High
         humidity (the amount of water vapor in the air) decreases the 
         body’s ability to cool down by sweating, thus increasing the body T°.
     *  Can lead to heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke.


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