What is/Intro to: Psychology
What is/Intro to: Psychology PSY 2301 002
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rahmin Rizvi on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2301 002 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Sarah Kucker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 01/14/16
What is Psychology ● Scientifistudy of thmind andbehavior ○ Scientific: objective. methodological ○ Mind: Private inner experience ○ Observable actions ● Multiple areas (topics.subfields) ○ Applied practical problems in industrial or organizational settings ○ Basic Researchbuilds knowledge through training and research ● Various Perspectives/approaches *** ○ 5 major perspectives approaches ■ Focus of the research (topic) ■ Interpretation of results (explanations for why) Perspectives/Approaches (total 5) ● Neuroscience focus on how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. ○ More biological than cognitive ● Evolutionary Focus on how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes ● Psychodynamics focus on how the behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts ○ Focuses on the mind component, what are your unconscious desire/goals that is your inner drive. ● Cognitive focus on how behavior and metal process results from observing, processings and the world ○ How you process the world and the production of your behavior ● Socialcultural: Focus on the social and cultural influences on behavior and mental processes. ● Scientific → physiology ○ Scientific branch of bio. that studies the functions and parts of living organisms ● Mind and behavior → philosophy ○ Theoretically based study of the nature of reality, knowledge, and mind. Important Concepts: Psychology: Scientific study of the mind and behavior Perspective/Approaches to psychology Nature vs. nurture History of Psychology What is psychology?-Scientific study of the mind and behavior Philosophy Roots Nature Vs. Nurture ● Nature: ○ Innate, genes Nativism ○ You are born with it. ○ Plato ■ Nativism or idea that certain knowledge are inborn or innate ● Limbs-you need practice ● Nurture: ○ Learned, environment, Empiricism ○ You learned it. ○ Aristotle ■ Empiricism or idea all knowledge is acquired through knowledge Rene Descartes vs Thomas Hobbes ● Rene Descartes ○ Dualism: Physical body is a container for non-physical things (like mind) ■ Idea mind and body are separate entities that interact ● Thomas Hobbes ○ Believed mind and body can’t be separated. ○ Brain dictates both mind and body. ○ Mind and body work together, can’t be separated. ■ The Mind is what the brain does. ● Mind: Your abstract things/Things that can’t be held down/Not physical ● Brain: The actual brain/You can touch. Fast Forward through time ● Franz Joseph Gall(1758-1828) ○ Founder of phrenology. ■ Phrenology-theory that specific mental abilities are localized in specific areas of the brain. ● Good language-you got to have a specific bump for that skill. ● Size of lumps reflect the size of the brain region below. ○ Like palm reading ○ If you cut a part of the brain, according to Gall, you would lose ability. Adding Physiology ... ● Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) ○ Interested in the time it takes for a nerve to a travel to the brain ■ Stimuli sensory input from environment ■ Reaction time- time to respond to stimuli ● Would give a test to see how smart you are at math-not just the part of the brain. Beginnings of Psych as Science ● Structuralism ○ Analyze the mind by breaking it down into its basic components. ○ Breaking up the brain into it’s component. ○ Structuralist say: “To understand what we are seeing we have to break it down to it’s part.” -properties ○ Defining the behavior ● Functionalism ○ Studies how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments. ○ You have to understand that there is more to it then you see. ○ The function of behavior Wundt Titchener Vs James (Darwin) ● William Wundt (1832-1920) ○ Student of Helmholtz ○ “Founder” of psych ■ Structuralism- basic elements of the mind ■ Consciousness-individual’s subjective experience of the world. ■ Introspection-thinking of own thinking, observation of one’s own experience. ● Edward Titchener (1867-1927) ○ Student of Wundt ○ Introspection ○ Complex Conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental parts of structures-STRUCTURALISM ● Williams James (1842-1910) ○ Functionalist ○ Stream of consciousness- the mind is like a river and consciousness isn’t limited to verbal bits. ■ Language is a limit. / There should be more to it ● Charles Darwin (1809-1882) ○ On the Origin of Species (1859) influenced psychologist to investigate how behavior allows animals to adapt to their environment. ■ Natural Selection -Features of an organism help it survive and reproduce. ■ Influenced-Evolution ● Sigmund Freud ○ The unconscious- part of the mind that operated outside of conscious awareness, but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, actions. ● Ex: Someone makes you angry you vent out the anger on someone else. ■ Emphasized unconscious conflicts that were predominantly sexual and aggressive in nature. ■ Conflicts are revealed in almost every aspect of everyday life, but when extreme result in psychological disorder. ■ Influenced-psychodynamics Problems with Freud’s view ● Problems with introspection (which Wundt, James, Freud all focus on) ○ Inconsistent responses ○ Thoughts and people vary ○ Can change across time ● Carl Jung ○ Friend of Freud ○ Had a more positive view. “We want to be good people.” ○ Ignore sexual components of Freud and gave positive view of psyche ○ Humanistic ● Alfred Adler ○ Inferiority complex ○ Focons on the individual Humanistic Approach ● Think of the human people/That we are the people and we do good. ● Freud was neg. and conflict driven wanted a pos/optimistic change and focus on external influences. ● Emphasizes the positive potential of human beings. ○ Fulfilling your full potential ○ Self-determination, free will, and the importance of choice. ○ Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow Behaviorism ● Movement started 1930/1940 ● Psychology redefined as the scientific study of observable behavior, ○ Ivan Pavlov-Discovers conditioned reflexes. ○ John Watson - Extend approach to human behavior. ○ B.F Skinner- Further experiments on behavior, learning, reinforcement, and conditioning. Cognitive Revolution ● Experimental reaction to behaviorism → A return to emphases on mental processes and how they influence behavior. ● There is a lot more to it than just watching behavior. ● Cognitive Psych ○ Scientific study of how perception thought, memory, and reasoning are processes. ● Influenced and strengthened by the emergence of the computer. ● Jean Piaget ○ Perceptual and cognitive abilities of children. ○ Everyone is a little scientist. ● Chomsky ○ Critique Skinner ○ Innate language. ○ No like Skinner ● Neuroscience ○ Linking mental processes and behavior to activities in the brain to nervous system. ● Also rise of social psych cultural psych, return to evolutionary psych, and hybrid areas. Overview Key Concepts ● Nature Vs. Nurture ● Structuralism vs Federalism ● Wundt ● James ● Freud ● Humanistic period ● Behaviorism ● Cognitive Rev.
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