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Geology 105, Week 1 Notes

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by: Hansss

Geology 105, Week 1 Notes GEOL 105 - 02

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Geology > GEOL 105 - 02 > Geology 105 Week 1 Notes
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About this Document

These notes were taken between January 6th and January 14th.
Earth History
Erin Beutel
Class Notes
Geology, theories, evolution, laws, natural selection, genetic diversity, punctuated equilibrium, fossils




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hansss on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 105 - 02 at College of Charleston taught by Erin Beutel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Earth History in Geology at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 01/14/16
Geology 105 Earth History: Week 1 Notes 1/06/16  Hypothesis- educated guess based on observation o Science does not make it a fact, justifies understanding  Fact/Law- observation that has never been disproven o Does not explain “why” o A proved hypothesis  “why” is a theory o Larger question where smaller pieces can be changed as new evidence comes in o Ex. Why the water runs down the hill, then tries to explain it What is gravity? Law/fact, theory, hypothesis? Definition of gravity- small bodies attracted to larger bodies, the bigger the body, the greater the force/attraction Ex. Hot air balloons- heat rises, less dense, less mass  less pull **Difference between fact and theory is the “why”  For gravity we used Einstein’s Theory of Relativity to explain why things fall.  Relativity explains where gravity comes from Evolution- law or theory? BOTH- it is observed at all times  Law- descent with modification o Every generation slightly different than the one before  Theory- that all life on Earth descended from single-celled organisms through evolution 1/12/16  Natural Selection- you survive how your babies survive o Ex. Baby born without teeth will not be able to eat seeds o In this environment, your babies are on the top  Survival of the fittest o Food o Water o Not get eaten o Body temperature o Ability to attract a healthy mate o Healthy o Ability to reproduce  Rate of Reproduction- if you have lots of babies quickly and often, genetic characteristics selected for survival can be passed on to multiple generations In order to get different populations to sustain themselves- need to isolate them (the colors, ex. Hark & light mice) Game  Can a mutation occur that is beneficial in one place & not another? o Yes, Ex. Webbed feet  Can one species evolve from another without the first one going extinct? o Yes, because they are cousins & can be from the same mother but different  Ex. Chesapeake Retriever  Nutrition-Climate: do you get enough food to survive & be healthy enough to feed your young? o Ex. Dwarf Elephant  Littlest elephant needs less food, therefore it is the healthiest. It’s mate will also be small because it is healthy and can do the elephant dance (attract a mate)  Climate- food source- what is it and do I have to compete for it? o Can you genetically change to respond to climate change?  Finches & the drought- seed hardness increased, therefore, the number of birds with large beaks increased (for the birds who stayed during the drought)  Predator Evasion o Color of mice o Shells  Disease resistance- the bigger the gene pool the better the chance you have o In-breeding dogs has resulted in dogs with low resistance to certain diseases  Small gene pool o If there is a very narrow gene pool then it can be wiped out by a single disease  Ex. Black plague, small villages o Correlation between sickle cell & malaria in Africa Evolution is happening all the time, but it is accelerated or clearer at certain times  When there are empty ecological niches due to extinction or environmental changes Why did mammal thrive after dinosaurs?  Lack of competition, more food availability  Genetic diversity changes in mass extinction  Ecological niche Adaptive breakthroughs- the appearance of key features that allow the radiation to take place  When get an opening in a niche 1/14/16 Evolution Structure  Gradualistic Model o Small steps o Selection for useful traits over many generations o Occurs quite rarely  Ex. Oysters, best to have in the winter when they have less bacteria growing on them  Punctuated Equilibrium o Phyletic Gradualism  Slow & steady change o Punctuated Equilibrium  Short periods of rapid change There are many different genetics & variations, which is why there is a lot of different evolution and different paces of evolution can take place Solutions to the banana problem:  Only one type of banana is resistant (Cavendish) o Can we possibly make a hybrid that and resist the disease? o Take seeds & plant them in soil with no fungus Evidence for Evolution  Fossils  DNA  Comparative anatomy  Observation of evolution  Lab experiments Fossil- a preservation of a living thing Mold (different) - no interior, shell actually gone  Ex. Clam goes away, space filled with minerals  Amber/ice/ bog o Preserve soft parts = stasis o Lack of oxygen Replacement fossils-  Hard parts  Bone (still there?)  Buried & replaced by minerals  Ex. T-Rex Imprint- not filled in DNA  made up of amino acids  Where did we find them where not expected? o On asteroids from space (not biological) Vertebrates  All we have pharyngeal pouches o Develop into gills & fish, or tubes & ears that connect o throat in humans How do we know which is older? Relative Dating- which is older than which based on the fundamental assumption that oldest undisturbed rocks are on the bottom Absolute Dating- numbers Principle of Original Horizontality- sedimentary rocks (rocks deposited by wind & water) were originally flat  Most deposited in water, not land, because over time land erodes away Principles of Superposition- oldest, undisturbed sedimentary rocks on the bottom **Stratigraphic columns tell us the sequence Faunal Succession- an established succession of fossils found throughout the world **geologic time-scale found before there were numbers


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