Geology 105, Week 1 Notes
Geology 105, Week 1 Notes GEOL 105 - 02
C of C
Popular in Earth History
Popular in Geology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hansss on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 105 - 02 at College of Charleston taught by Erin Beutel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Earth History in Geology at College of Charleston.
Reviews for Geology 105, Week 1 Notes
The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Hannah for help in class!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/14/16
Geology 105 Earth History: Week 1 Notes 1/06/16 Hypothesis- educated guess based on observation o Science does not make it a fact, justifies understanding Fact/Law- observation that has never been disproven o Does not explain “why” o A proved hypothesis “why” is a theory o Larger question where smaller pieces can be changed as new evidence comes in o Ex. Why the water runs down the hill, then tries to explain it What is gravity? Law/fact, theory, hypothesis? Definition of gravity- small bodies attracted to larger bodies, the bigger the body, the greater the force/attraction Ex. Hot air balloons- heat rises, less dense, less mass less pull **Difference between fact and theory is the “why” For gravity we used Einstein’s Theory of Relativity to explain why things fall. Relativity explains where gravity comes from Evolution- law or theory? BOTH- it is observed at all times Law- descent with modification o Every generation slightly different than the one before Theory- that all life on Earth descended from single-celled organisms through evolution 1/12/16 Natural Selection- you survive how your babies survive o Ex. Baby born without teeth will not be able to eat seeds o In this environment, your babies are on the top Survival of the fittest o Food o Water o Not get eaten o Body temperature o Ability to attract a healthy mate o Healthy o Ability to reproduce Rate of Reproduction- if you have lots of babies quickly and often, genetic characteristics selected for survival can be passed on to multiple generations In order to get different populations to sustain themselves- need to isolate them (the colors, ex. Hark & light mice) Game Can a mutation occur that is beneficial in one place & not another? o Yes, Ex. Webbed feet Can one species evolve from another without the first one going extinct? o Yes, because they are cousins & can be from the same mother but different Ex. Chesapeake Retriever Nutrition-Climate: do you get enough food to survive & be healthy enough to feed your young? o Ex. Dwarf Elephant Littlest elephant needs less food, therefore it is the healthiest. It’s mate will also be small because it is healthy and can do the elephant dance (attract a mate) Climate- food source- what is it and do I have to compete for it? o Can you genetically change to respond to climate change? Finches & the drought- seed hardness increased, therefore, the number of birds with large beaks increased (for the birds who stayed during the drought) Predator Evasion o Color of mice o Shells Disease resistance- the bigger the gene pool the better the chance you have o In-breeding dogs has resulted in dogs with low resistance to certain diseases Small gene pool o If there is a very narrow gene pool then it can be wiped out by a single disease Ex. Black plague, small villages o Correlation between sickle cell & malaria in Africa Evolution is happening all the time, but it is accelerated or clearer at certain times When there are empty ecological niches due to extinction or environmental changes Why did mammal thrive after dinosaurs? Lack of competition, more food availability Genetic diversity changes in mass extinction Ecological niche Adaptive breakthroughs- the appearance of key features that allow the radiation to take place When get an opening in a niche 1/14/16 Evolution Structure Gradualistic Model o Small steps o Selection for useful traits over many generations o Occurs quite rarely Ex. Oysters, best to have in the winter when they have less bacteria growing on them Punctuated Equilibrium o Phyletic Gradualism Slow & steady change o Punctuated Equilibrium Short periods of rapid change There are many different genetics & variations, which is why there is a lot of different evolution and different paces of evolution can take place Solutions to the banana problem: Only one type of banana is resistant (Cavendish) o Can we possibly make a hybrid that and resist the disease? o Take seeds & plant them in soil with no fungus Evidence for Evolution Fossils DNA Comparative anatomy Observation of evolution Lab experiments Fossil- a preservation of a living thing Mold (different) - no interior, shell actually gone Ex. Clam goes away, space filled with minerals Amber/ice/ bog o Preserve soft parts = stasis o Lack of oxygen Replacement fossils- Hard parts Bone (still there?) Buried & replaced by minerals Ex. T-Rex Imprint- not filled in DNA made up of amino acids Where did we find them where not expected? o On asteroids from space (not biological) Vertebrates All we have pharyngeal pouches o Develop into gills & fish, or tubes & ears that connect o throat in humans How do we know which is older? Relative Dating- which is older than which based on the fundamental assumption that oldest undisturbed rocks are on the bottom Absolute Dating- numbers Principle of Original Horizontality- sedimentary rocks (rocks deposited by wind & water) were originally flat Most deposited in water, not land, because over time land erodes away Principles of Superposition- oldest, undisturbed sedimentary rocks on the bottom **Stratigraphic columns tell us the sequence Faunal Succession- an established succession of fossils found throughout the world **geologic time-scale found before there were numbers
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'