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Part 1 for Chapter one

by: Zuleykha aslanova

Part 1 for Chapter one Criminal Justice 101

Zuleykha aslanova
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I will upload the second half of the chapter by the end of week.
Otwin Morenin
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zuleykha aslanova on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Criminal Justice 101 at Washington State University taught by Otwin Morenin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 278 views.


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Date Created: 01/14/16
Criminal Justice 101  Professor Otto Chapter One Introduction to Crime and the Criminal Justice System      What is the criminal Justice system?     ­  compromises institutions, policies, and practices with the goal of maintaining social       control and deterring crime through sanctions and rehabilitation.      ­ Compromises 3 important  components   Law Enforcement ­ charged with investigating  crimes and apprehending  individuals alleged to have committed a crime  Courts ­ responsible for interpreting and applying the law in cases  Corrections ­ incarceration in jails or prisons. The supervision in the  community, parole, or probation.   Size of the System.   System is enormous because probation of the juvenile and adult population is  under the control of the criminal justice system   6,977,700 supervised in jail, prison, parole, or probation at a year­end  1 in 34 adults incarcerated (2,920 per 100,000)  Gender, race, and Hispanic origin in the system  Year­end 2011 ­ 932 per 100,00 adult males imprisoned  o 14x greater than the females  every 3,023 per 100,00 Black non­Hispanic adult males imprisoned  o 6x greater than white non­Hispanic adult males   Powerful, wealthy, and in the majority citizens are given best accommodations,  while poor and minorities are treated harshly.   Differences in being  sanctioned or incarcerated also associated with  characteristics of the victim   Black non­Hispanic males are has the highest imprisonment rate.   Growth in corrections were driven by the public's desire for harsher longer  sentences  CA is under federal court order to release prisoners because of overcrowding  prisoners who were there b/c of the "get tough" policy      How does the CrimJ system work?      ­ Varied among the gov't at the local, state, and the federal levels.   The road map  • process begins after crime is known to law enforcement.  • L.E investigates and determines if the crime occurred or not. Identifies and  apprehends offender(s).  • Gathered info presented to prosecutor • Prosecutor makes a decision to file charges or not.  Criminal Justice 101  Professor Otto  If not, accused is released  If charges are filed, decisions from either plea bargain/trial or dropping In some jurisdictions, a charges are made by the prosecutor.  grand jury is  Dropping charges also known as Nolle Prosequi (unwilling to  pursue) convened to investigate and  once charged, case goes before a judge/magistrate in person or via video  indictment or no bill to be informed of the charges (not enough  Charges are given at the arraignment, defendant informed of her/his rights  evidence so the and either pleads guilty or not (nolo contendere)   Trial ­ prosecution provides evidence and question witnesses  Punishment differs greatly   indeterminate sentence ­ the form of a range of years to be served (3­ 15yrs)   prison/jail can be avoided by house arrest, boot camp, electronically  monitored, intensive supervision, and/or drug treatment.      Criminal Justice 101  Professor Otto  The Victim   May need psychological/emotional support  Assistance w/insurance agencies  Attend many things   Paired with victim advocates ­ victim service providers(support crime victime)   Crime and the Importance of personal liberties  more money flow to the system, fewer resources available for other institutions such as  community centers, prevention programs, and education.   Inalienable rights­ universal rights that’s not contingent on laws or beliefs specific to a particular  gov't  Judicial activism ­  refers to deviation from literal meaning of the constitution, to take into  account the present situation including complex societal advances.  Argued by commentators and scholars that USA PATRIOT Act ( Uniting and Strengthening  America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) is an  example of how citizens lose their freedom.   What is Crime?    ­ the breaking of a law for which the criminal justice system or more other governing authority     prescribes punishment   Street Crimes   ­ common and serious, involving a victim and offender who come together in space and time • homicide, rape, sexual assault, robbery, and physical assault.  • usually occur between ppl know to one another  • 2010 ­ 40% of male victims and  64% of female victime of nonfatal violence reported that  they knew the offender. • In reality, street crimes does not involve deadly weapons • Unlikely to lead to an injury or death. BUT it can and DOES happen.   Property Crimes  ­ Crime against property. The most common forms of property crime including burglary, property    theft, and motor vehicle theft.   Victimless Crimes  ­ Thought not to involve victims b/c they don’t directly harm an individual other than the offender  • e.g., Prostitution, drug use, gambling • There is disagreement on whether or not there are victims.   prostitution may increase violence b/c they're assaulted b/c of their status  gambling may lead to financial ruin. Requiring families to be supported thru govt   White­ Collar Crimes  ­ Crimes committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his Criminal Justice 101  Professor Otto     occupation ­ Generally conceived of lying, cheating, and stealing by occupational, corporate, and gov't    professionals using wide range of frauds.   Bribery, security fraud, ponzi schemes, mortgage fraud, misuse of pension funds, bank  fruad, unsafe products, violations of public trust, medical fraud, insider trading, price  fixing, toxic dumping, fiduciary fraud, religious fraud.   Are NOT victimless crimes  single fraud/scam can destroy corp. and bankrupt families  Affect more people than street and property crime combined.   Committed more by males than females.   Cybercrime   ­ illegal activity using a computer or computer networks as the primary method of commission.   Examples:  bullying, stalking ­ violent crimes  identity theft ­ property crimes  securities fraud ­ white­collar crimes  child pornography   online gambling  overlap with terrorism  Terrorism    ­ Completed or threatened use of coercion and/or violence against a population of  people with     the goal of changing political, religious, or ideological positions.   Characteristics ­   Committed by subnational or extremist clandestine groups that may or may  not include groups in the U.S   It is premeditated   Targets are noncombatants   Acts have the purpose of influencing an audience   Acts tend to be cross­national (international versus domestic terrorism)   Acts generally seek political, social, or economic change  Micheal McVeigh and Terry Nichols  American Militia Movement sympathizers   believed govt was infriging their right to bear arms  McVeigh detonated the nitrate fertilizer based bomb that Nichols built


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