IAFF 2040: In-Class Notes, & Notes on Assigned Readings
IAFF 2040: In-Class Notes, & Notes on Assigned Readings IAFF 2040
Popular in Middle East: An International Affairs Survey
Popular in International Studies
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One Day of Notes
Aaron Delouya Rabinowitz
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Intro to International Affairs
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One Day of Notes
Intro to International Affairs
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 2040 at George Washington University taught by Nathan J. Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Middle East: An International Affairs Survey in International Studies at George Washington University.
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WEEK 1 NOTES The Middle East: An International Affairs Survey Professor Nathan J. Brow Caroline E. Jok The George Washington University Class ~ Day 1: The Middle East: An International Affairs Survey Professor: Nathan J. Brown || TA: Nora Doaiji • Course is an introduction to the ME • Focusing on the process of the formation of modern states. 1. States (Formation) 2. Religion 3. Society/Life/Citizenship 4. Policy • Exams focusing primarily on the readings • Paper requirement (Issue/Question/Event) and compare how it was covered in US media vs. a ME c ountry. • All equally weighted @25% • If you need an appt. email • Wednesday: o The political Evolution of the Middle East o The Following week: The Ottoman Empire; Guest Lecturer; o Specific Countries • Do readings prior to class. • Class ~ Day 2: The Evolution of the Middle East State System • Middle East in 1800 • (US Civil War goes on) o Seen From Above o Maps are misleading because in reality the borders weren't clear o Ottoman-Turkey, because the Capitol was in Istanbul (Turkey) and the ruling dynasty was the Ottoman family, but it was in many ways not a nation state, it was a multinational empire • The empire was very Poly -centric, there were regional rulers, military Elite (another reason why borders are misleading) • Political Empire was headquartered in a city and was projected out from that central point (softer the further out you go) • Ottoman officials have a lot of Autonomy from the Empire itself o It saw itself as a Muslim empire but it included lots of religions o Claims ultimate sovereignty over a vast area but doesn't exercise this directly Seen From Below o If you were living in cities, you'd notice it more o If you were living in the country side, you might see a state official about once a year, and the official you saw may not have clearly been an official. o It was a range between heavily involved to receding, anything from a major presence to a minor presence Key Institutions o Armies (impose its presence "public security") • Tended to be small, professional • Aimed as much internally as externally o Law • If you have a dispute with commercial transactions, a neighbor, etc. you may end up in a court of law. • However, states tended to appoint judges in cities and major towns • Judges tended to be well trusted merchants or religious scholars. • Law on which they rule: § Edicts issued by rulers § Religious sources § Customs • Your religious community played a role o Cities • Urban areas tended to be places where state control was much heavier § There is a lot more monetized transaction • Tended to be very well defined (ex: had walls) • State building and Imperialism 1798 -1945 Growth of trade o Historically States would guarant ee things like weights and measure and secure trade, making it easier to tax o Part of this happened internationally o Greater demand for primary products (tobacco, cotton, wine) o European merchants were coming to the middle east to buy things (rulers like this ) o More trade = more things to tax o States had a way to encourage growth domestically as well. (Grow this rather than this. If you grow this, you get this. Built infrastructure) o Fostered and facilitated by the Growth of the state Expansion of State o If states can persuade individuals to grow certain goods rather than others (cotton or tobacco rather than grain) a balance issue occurs. o States were able to do this through military (field more powerful military forces) • Equipping military, increasing size • Europe was able to conscript, so they had bigger militaries • Militaries allow imposition of taxes and regulation of trade o Expanded Administratively as well • Want to educate certain parts of populations • Have a bureaucracy that helps monitor new taxes o Invest in Infrastructure o Want to expand geographically o Want to expand within its own borders • Control the areas in between a lot better (more uniform control across the board) o Symbiotic process (trade and expansion of state) Bankruptcy o Common problem in the re gion o The growth requires and initial investment (ex: infrastructure) o Who you were legally matters not just on where you live but on what you believe o Sometimes their tax systems didn't work out (given manipulation by European powers) o Egypt borrowed a lot of money, works well till the U.S. is out of a civil war = crash o By the late 19 c. there were fiscal crisis in various places (empires), all of them try a period of constitutional reform (most of which fail), find themselves subject to European Financial C ontrol • In the 19c. Europe took over assets if the country couldn't pay Collapse of Empires o Ottoman Empire tried and had some success in converting itself into a bureaucratic empire, however they were losing lots of territories to Europe and Russia o Empire was geographically shrinking, but within it was more powerful & centralized o Fatal Mistake: Enters WWI on the side that Loses. o Persian empire • Becomes more subject to European control and has a prolonged period of instability o Mandates and Independence o Imperial rule o Attention turns to Europe who wants to gain, but not invest a lot. o Populations aren't all that welcoming to European control o Sometimes allowed for autonomy or independence o Treaties of Alliance (which gives the British control of defense and foreign affairs ) o Interim arrangements o The French were harder to work out these arrangements with o WWII makes it harder to hold onto these empires and European Control collapses o Modern States were built partly by Europe, and Partially by local reform. o The states are formed in a way that is shaped by European control o Consider: The Area of Law that is most rooted i n religion "Personal Status Law" (varies according to your religious community). If you study Islamic law (500 years ago) this wasn't a category. Where does the phrase "PSL" come from? It comes from the French when they moved into Algeria. • The area of Islamic law that is most in action is one that is defined by and evolved through European Imperialism o European imperialism didn't invent these states, they were preexisting. • Post-Independence State Building Building More Intrusive Administration o Capitulations prevent local government from running the national economy o States wanted to come in and run the shows o Universities, school systems, cancelled capitulations o Creates a period of tremendous expansion of administration o Inflation of state, not invention of state. Building Security Apparatuses o Forget Local armies until they are independent o Externally and Internally oriented o Done in a system in which they were not accountable to any kind of domestic structure State and Economy: Expansion and Retr eat o Virtually all states experienced tremendous expansion of state involvement in Economy. o 1980s on, many countries, especially the poorer ones felt the state had taken on too much and they begin to withdraw. o Ex: Tuition is free, unable to support this, and then proceeding to slowly retract this. • Evolution of Regimes Authoritarianism - but of what kind? o Both Monarchies and PR are authoritarian. o Political authority is unaccountable to the people Monarchies - family and other o Head of state that is a king, sultan etc. o Some were run by families, (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar) o (Jordan) Monarch who is head of a state, but the top state positions are not occupied by his family Presidential republics o Almost all authority lies in presidency o Unaccountable presidency Stasis and Change o Up until 2011 there was tremendous stability o Activism in 2011 suddenly increases. Unanswered questions. o What happens after 2011 Reading Notes ~ The Middle East - Ellen Lust Ch. 1 Chapter 1: The Making of the Mo dern Middle East Background: Early Islamic History Pre-Islamic Arabia Golden age of social justice and economic equality • • Introduction of Islam: o 7th c. in (now) Saudi Arabia - Mecca o Mecca = trade town & Shrine o Ramadan = tribes gather in Mecca for worship, all feuds put aside • People: o Jews, Christians & Animist: spiritual power = natural phenomena and objects Society: • o Tribal, Hierarchical, no organized state structure o Sense of injustice among those who did not benefit from trade The Message • 610 CE Muhammad ibn Abdallah has visions (Gathered in the Quran) o Spread the word of Abraham's monotheistic God; The perfection of Judaism and Christianity. o Jesus = prophet Quran • o 114 chapters (suras); verses (ayas) 'arranged according to how Muhammad organized i t, not chronologically. • Appealed to many who were excluded from Mecca's wealth o Vision of society where actions (vs. material possession) are a measure of worth' • City of Medina: 1st Muslim Polity (mark beginning of Muslim calendar); Muhammad is also the lea der (& Prophet) Succession • 632 CE Muhammad dies, Who will lead next? --> Schism • Sunni Muslims o 632 - 661 CE Rightly Guided Caliphs ( Rashidun) o Golden age of Islamic Rule o Caliphs: Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al -Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib • 3 of the 4 are killed, ending with the death of Ali The following time period: • o Islam spreads: 635 CE = Damascus, 638 CE = Jerusalem, 641 CE = Egypt (Date of each regions fall to Islam) o Issue: Managing a vast empire o Garrison towns (amsar) built to house Muslim soldiers away from main cities. o People of the book: protected people (dhimmi status) paid taxes in return for military protection and the ability to practice their own faith. (Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians) o Conversion not encouraged in subjects • Ali's assassination (661 CE) ends the time period of the Rightly Guided Caliphs Umayyads • 661 CE Mu'awiya ibn Abi Suyan declares himself caliph o Moves the capital from Mecca to Damascus • Marks beginning of Umayyad dynasty • 680 CE - 12 year civil war o Ali's side (Shiat Ali) claim his son (Hussein) is the rightful caliph; however he dies in battle. *Shiite Muslim self-image = persecuted minority • 750 CE Abbasid Revolution ends Umayyad rule o One escapes: al-Rahman establishes an Umayyad dynasty with Cordoba as its cap ital. The Ottoman and Safavid Empires The Ottomans • 1258 CE: Mongol Invasion o Ottoman Empire • Based in Istanbul; Est. by Osman I around 1300 in Anatolia • Descended from Turkish -speaking Muslim tribes that fled the Mongol Invaders between 1100 and 1300 CE • Unique: ability to insert itself into local power dynamics to achieve security and stability. • Circle of justice maxim: without an army there is no power, without justice there are no productive subjects o Janissaries: full time, professional, infantry forc e w/uniforms and regular pay made up of Christian boys enslaved (system: Devshirme, took place every 4 years.) • Purpose: Prevent the emergence of rivals from Turkish noble/warrior classes • Odd way that slavery represented upward mobility fro the rural poor The Safavids • Roots in Azerbaijan region; Turkic decent • Est. 1501 by Shah Ismail I, Capital Tabriz, "shah of Iran" • Persian-speaking bureaucracy & conscript slave army • *(contrary to Ottomans) Islam Center of his authority • Shiite Islam = state religion • Shah Abbas I (1587 - 1629) o Large standing army of slave conscripts, adopted use of gunpowder weapons, rebuilt the state bureaucracy o Recovered territories o Commercial relationships between European Merchants and local Armenians o High point of Safavid power • Lack of leadership and resolve = weekend central government by end of 1600s Ottoman Society • Communal religious identity: just administration based on universally recognized hierarchy of identities • No citizens (foreign concept) • Millet System o Millet = religious group officially recognized by Ottoman authorities and granted a degree of communal autonomy o Leader reports to sultan o Each millet can use its own language, establish charitable and social institutions, collect taxes for the imperial treasury and operate religious courts(marriage, inheritance, family, dress, prep of food, public behaviors) o State o State courts = public security • Trend: poor classes: gender roles are more flexible. • Public life: divided along gender lines; separation of the sexes. • Society is hierarchical w/ each layer taking tasks • Trades organized into guilds for proper taxation and competition & quality regulation • Rulers and ruled o Rulers: military, chief bureaucrats, religious authorities ( Ulema) Changing Costs The Challenge of the West • 1683: Ottomans capture Vienna, however, west is rising. o Influx of silver from south America causes inflation in Ottoman empire, smuggling increases o European finished goods devastate the Ottoman merchant class • Economic and political pressures from Europe, gradual ceding of land leads to the decline and struggle of the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon's Invasion of Egypt and Reaction • 1798 Napoleon lands in Egypt o Studied the people, history and archaeology in attempt to take over… failed o British and Ottomans organize military campaign to dislodge the French + popular resistance = French ask for peace and leave 3 years later • Old question: how to defend against the Ottoman expansion • New Question: how to deal with an empire that wasn't keeping up o Russia (change the status quo) tries to undermine the Ottomans, Brits & Austria invest in the status quo (aka support the sultan) Egypt: Mehmet Ali • Indirect consequence of the French campaign in Egypt • Established himself as a ruler of Egypt o Centralized state w/ tax collection o Dynasty lasted till 1952 o Military machine, modern schools, sent students to study abroad government agricultural monopolies, high quality cotton, infrastructure (irrigation canals, dams, waterworks, transport system) o **Became over-reliant on cotton which led to breakdown of state and British occupation. • Strong enough to threaten the Ottoman Empire (British make this impossible) o Treaty of London 1840: British ottoman commercial convention forbade monopolies in the Ottoman empire and deprived him the ability to raise capital, limited his army The Tanzimat Reforms Janissaries become more political than military • • Tanzimat reforms are a result of the threat that Mehmet Ali posed (aka "Defensive developmentalism") • Comparison o Western Europe: relativel y centralized, uniform administrative regimes with single economic policy o Ottoman: local autonomy • Reform o Try to replicate European state model o Expensive (took out loans) • Mid 1870s Ottoman state was bankrupt • 1881 Ottoman Public Debt Commission (ceded control of finances to West Europe) o Security - rebuilt armed forces, upgrade infrastructure, increased efficient policing o Modernized education (universities, military academies, technical schools) o Legal reforms in attempt to put ottoman merchants on the same level as European counterparts, unfortunately it also made it easier for European Merchants to do business locally Legal Reform and Ottomanism • All individuals put on the same legal status regardless of religious identity o Ottomanism stresses that all citizens are equal members of the same political community bound together by common allegiance to state transcending religious and regional identity o Some felt they were losing privileges (Muslims and other high ranking members of millets) , others resisted due to military conscription • Solution: buy your way out Issue: Muslims were not grated this right • o Collective autonomy is replaced with individual direct relations to the state o Influence no longer dependent on an identity group rather on numbers • Irony: Reform meant to provide equality yields stark division. The End of the Tanzimat • Ottoman constitution of 1876 and election of 1st Ottoman parliament in 1877, 1876 New Sultan • Tried to reverse political reforms, emphasized the Islamic charac ter of the Ottoman Empire Saw reforms as influence of the West that made things worse • • Expansion of the secret police, suppressive government, harsh treatment of Armenians (Fifth column that might ally with rival Russians to the North) (Armenian Genocide) Reforms in Qajar Persia • In attempts to secure support, present themselves as protectors of Shiite Islam • Lack of central authority = growing influence of European power (primarily Russia and Britain) • Late 19 c. there were attempted reforms, but these faile d. Tribal confederations grew more autonomous and had greater military capability than the central state. • • Like the Ottomans: Expensive Reforms = Debt to Europe o D'Arcy oil concession of 1905 which surrendered much of Iran's oil to the British • Great Powers divide the country into Russian influence (north) British influence (south) • 1900 - 1920s = civil war and anarchy European Encroachment in Elsewhere in the Middle East • European domination: o Debt • Suez Canal (Egypt) • Maghreb taken as a repayment for debt o Colonial empires • North Africa (Led by the French and Spanish) • Finalized after WWII • British established line of protectorates/principalities by supporting local families (many still remain in power today) Cultural Renaissance: Social and Religious Reform • New literate class not associated with religious institutions (brought about by the reforms) • Western missionaries contribute to schools • State and Missionary schools = force behind intellectual and cultural movements o Intellectuals begin to wonder: How they came to be dominated by the Great Powers? • Creative period in the region's cultural history - produced many of the ideological currents that affected politics of the 20th century • Nahda- Arabic Literary renaissance o Began as a revival movement in Arabic liter ature o Developed into Arab nationalism o Arab society could not move forward until it threw of the yoke of "Turkish" dominance o Newspapers help create the idea of an Arab world that had not existed before (Helped to manifest the idea of an Arabic speaking community) Islamic Modernism • Islamic Modernist (salifiyun): reread the canon of Islamic thought in light of the changed circumstances of the modern world, the challenge of colonialism and the cultural power of the west. o Muslims are the source of society's di fficulties o Muslim society began to decline due to Muslims straying from the true essence of Islam o Solution: Return to the faith of the pious ancestors o Movement: Salafiyya o Distortions: Blamed on the Muslim scholars and instructors of Islam that suppothe repressive rules o Strong advocates of representative government o Muslims should be taught how to eek answers from within Islam • Education is the centerpiece o For both men and women • Shared many ideas with social reformers o Seek the positive influence of European society: (Science/technical knowledge, new economic practices, democracy, freedom of expression) o Cultural translation staying true to Islam End of the Old Regime and the New Middle East The Ottoman Empire in the Post -Tanzimat Period and World War I • WWI = redrawing of boarders • Ottoman state faces issues o Rising dissent (reformers believed Ottoman state is moving backwards) o Young Turks (remove Abdul Hamid II) • Est. Committee of Union and Progress; new leaders don't posses same allegiance toOttoman state • British shift attitude to Ottoman Empire. (Formerly a strategic asset against the Russians) :: Rising concern of the Germans occupies Russian interests and support is removed from the Ottoman Empire • CUP supports Germany & Britain dismantles the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) was an Ottoman commander that posed a challenge to the Brits (Defeat ate • Gallipoli), and led the new Turkish Republic Contradictory British Promises • Assist Hussein Ibn Ali in revolting against the Ottoman overlo rds in exchange for British guarantees for an Arab kingdom • British interests: o Oil Strategic assets • • Quest to control the oil fields of Iraq • Protect the supply lines to British India o India • British break "pledges" to Hussein • Balfour Declaration: note signed by Arthur James Balfour, British foreign secretary, and addressed to the Banker Lord Walter Rothschild: Pledging British support for a national home for the Jews in Palestine o Sign of British desperation The End of War and the Mandate System • End of WWI = new era in Middle East • Mandate: colony by another name o Given an international legal fig leaf by authorization through the League of Nations o Basically: A Mandate would be sponsored until it could stand alone • Treaty of Lausanne (1923) formalizes the Ma ndate system and recognized the borders of the new Turkish Republic (Ataturk) o Ends hope for Kurds and Armenians independence • New borders: disrupt commercial ties, restrict movement of people and goods, create assortment of regimes and forms of local administration that imposed new kinds of responsibilities and legal sanctions. New and old loyalties relating to nationalism creates conflict The British and Moderate Iraq • Iraq + Ottoman units of Mosul, Baghdad and Basra o Mix of Sunni, Shiite, Assyrian and Arm enian Christians, Jews o Turks and Kurdish ethnic groups in the north o Had not been influenced heavily by Tanzimat reforms (government centralization) • The British = abrupt change; used military force • Local Objection o Arab Nationalism o Lower=middle classes & merchants resent military conscription o Regional elites object to centralized power • 1920 rebellion joins much of the Iraqi society including tribes and urban cities. o Emergence of Iraqi nationalism. • Britain relies on Hussein to maintain new colonies, Sons b ecome the kings of Syria and Jordan Mandate Palestine and Zionism • Has always been divided between several administrative units Zionism in Europe Zionism: form of Jewish Nationalism • • Can Jews ever be accepted as Jews in a nation made up of Non -Jews? o Zionist say no: Jews must have an independent nation-state because they will never be fully accepted • Jews should have sovereignty over a portion of the globe… which portion? The Beginning of Zionism in Palestine • Palestinian peasants often didn't own the land the y worked Zionists try to kick them off of the land = tensions • Palestinian merchants compete with Zionist merchants who have the protection of the foreign governments (capitulations) • Wealth gap, Palestinians see Zionists as aloof • Land question is a big issue and one of the factors that led to widespread support of the Arab revolt in WWI Zionists and Palestinians in the British Mandate • British chose a Zionist as the first high commissioner of Palestine • Zionist community received gr eater percentage of government funding (earned higher wages and paid more taxes) • Overall Zionist end up favored in most situations • Additionally: Palestinian internal conflict: o Nashashibis - pro British o Al-Hussein's - pro Palestinian • Eventually tensions rise to amounts that require British acknowledgment of unfair treatment the Zionist have received, however Chaim Weizmann (Zionist in London) pressure prim minister into rejecting the reports The Arab Revolt of 1936 • Instigated by British partiality towards the Zionists • Spark 1: discovery of a ship carrying arms for the military arm of the Zionist movement • Spark 2: assassination of Shaykh Izz al -Din al-Qasim, well-known figure whose populist nationalism drew on religious imagery • Palestinians rebel against th e British and Zionist. • Peel Commission Report o Mandate was unworkable o Suggest partition • 80% for Palestinians • 20% for Zionists (the more fertile part) • Revolt and fighting further weakens Palestinian society • In the midst of war, the British take extreme measures to calm the insurgency • Consequences: o British leave Palestine o Emergence of Palestinian Nationalism o Left Palestinians weakened (hurt them in the Palestinian war 7 years later) Palestine Mandate After World War II • White papers 1939 o Revisionists: Zionist radicals that want to confront the British military o Wanted to revise the Balfour declaration to take over Jordan as well • 1942 American Jewish leaders call for the US to back them in declaring Palestine their national home. • Argument: Palestinians make up 70% of the population, why should they have to cede land to the Jews? The War for Palestine • November 29, 1949 UN votes for the partition of Palestine = war • Zionist declare Israel an independent state (1948) • Arab-Israeli war : Israel wins States, Nations, and Debates about the Way Forward • New states built from scratch, and more involved in the daily lives of their populations o Many outlawed traditional dress and compelling the use of one national language (forbidding the use of others) o Elections producing the illusion of mass participation to help create a sense of national identity and belonging • Transition to mass politics and political parties • Some fear popular democratic rule brings threats of social revolution, their hesitation opened the door for movements from the lower social classes who felt left out of the elite nationalism • Beginning of a cultural struggle between secular modernist and those claiming to stand for th e preservation of eastern an Islamic tradition The Birth of the Turkish Republic • Nationalist movement ends in Treaty of Lausanne of July 1923: legitimized a nationalist government, defined new borders of Turkish state (Turkish Republic declared October 19 23) • Founder: Mustafa Kemal (hero of the Gallipoli campaign) o Creates a model of secular populist nationalism o Kemalism - conscious effort to break with Ottoman past and replace it with a modern, nationalist and secular consciousness. o Moved the capitol o Imposed separation of religion and state, tried to remove religion from public sphere. o Populist Turkish nationalism = No regional, ethnic or religious identity. o Emphasis on Turkishness leaves no room for minorities (Kurds) Reza Khan and the Pahlavi Regime • Iran suffered foreign intervention and was invaded/partially occupied • British support the Persian resistance against the Soviets • Persian officer named Reza Khan o Forces succeeded o Declared himself Shah of Pahlavi Dynasty 1925 o Built a centralized, modernized st ate o Bought the loyalties of the military o Conscription law of 1925 provides new recruits o Built a new sense of Iranian Nationalism o Purified Persian; Persianization o Gender separation outlawed • In contrast with Ataturk o Drew on cultural heritage of per-Islamic Iran o Renamed Iran o Majles: parliament • Anglo-Iranian Oil Company --> British Petroleum • 1951: Nationalist prime minister Mohammad Mossadeq o Decisive factor in 1979 Islamic Revolution o Nationalized AIOC o U.S. and UK stage a coup to get rid of Mossad eq o Shah is put back in power, US and Israeli help him build SAVAK (state security) • US involvement = anti -shah agitation building up to Islamic Revolution of 1979 • 1961 White Revolution o In hopes of preventing a communist take over o Top-down reform • Land reform • Increased pending on public health and education o fails. Consolidation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia • Emerged out of a long-running series of tribal wars • Ikhwan: main fighting force of the Saudis • 1932 entire peninsula • Post WWII - oil discovered and commercial exploitation • 1933 1st oil concession to the Arabian American Oil Company (Aramco) o Joint venture of Shell, Exxon, Mobil, Chevron, Gulf, Texaco, and BP o Close relationship with Saudi rulers: by transferring vast sums of money to them and buil ding modern state o Capitalist partnership where both side benefit. Post -1948 Egypt and the Rise or Nasserism • Arab defeat in the war for Palestine in 1948 • Most Egyptians are in poverty • Military was disenchanted: lack of support for the war effort in Palest ine • British troops in Suez Canal Zone = more nationalist resentment • January 1952 Black Sunday Fire in Cairo: targeted foreign -owned businesses o Toppled the Egyptian monarchy • Free Officers take over (military rule that is still present) o Set up the Revolutionary Command Council(RCC) o Lt. Col Nasser • Domestic reforms & Foreign policy aka Nasserism § Populist/socialist § Land reform: restricted amount of land that can be owned § Nationalized banking, insurance, manufacturing, other industries, education system § Expanded public sector (more jobs) § Middle class strong § Foreign Policy: Aggressive anti-imperialism and nonalignment • • Egypt and Syria merge as the United Arab Republic (1958 -61) • Sense of optimism about the future • Suez Crisis of 1956 (aka Tripartite Aggress ion) § Nasser Nationalizes the Suez Canal • Angers the UK • Built an alliance to attack Egypt - France (angry of Nasser's support for the Algerian revolution), Israel (sees Nasser as a threat) • 1959 attack Egypt & Defeat the Egyptian military • U.S. reacts with anger • Cooperates w/ Soviet Union • End of British hegemony in Middle East Syria and Jordan: Turmoil and Change after 1948 • 1946: Syria and Transjordan become independent states • 1948 = Arab-Israeli war • Syria: o Military did not forgive the civilian leaders of t he country o 1949 3 military coups o Over 20 years of instability o 1970: Baathist Hafiz al-Assad est. himself as ruler • Transjordan: o King received a yearly stipend from British government for his loyalty o Goal: prevent establishment of an independent Palestinian state o Zionist leaders cede central Palestine to Jordan for not getting to involved o Post 1956: Jordan and Iraq come together = Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan • Hoped to increase their roles in Arab affairs • Wary of Egypt • 1958 coup in Iraq (aligned them with Egypt) • Jordan's King: Hussein § British and U.S. support Hussein § Struggle for Kurdish power § Several rebellions § Post U.S. -led invasion of Iraq in 2003: Iraqi Kurdistan gains status in the new federal system. North Africa after 1948 and toward Independence • North African countries achieved their independence later than the Arabian countries. • Post-independence: new leaders backed by the military • Foreign policy tended towards Arab nationalism • Libya: o Independence: 1949; King Idris I till 1969 o 1969: coup modeled after Egypt o Ruled under Muammar Al -Qadafi till 2011 - assassinated by NATO • Algeria: o National Liberation Front: war of independence against France in 1954 o Independence: 1962 o Socialist-style central planning: increasingly authoritarian o Supportive of Palestinian cause • Tunisia: o independence: 1956 o Democratic Façade o Rivals with Egypt • Morocco o Independence: 1956 o King: Muhammad VI o No reform post-Arab Spring Al-Naksa and its ramifications The June 1967 War and the End of Nasserism • Nasser and other Arab leaders continue to confront Israel in defense of Palestinians • Hoped to channel domestic political criticism toward the Palestine issue • Arab regimes regularly accused one another of not showing real commitme nt to the Palestinians. • 1967 war: naksa (the setback) o Misreading of the military -political situation by the Arab states and Nasser o Nasser assumed the US & Soviet Union wouldn't allow a war in the M.E. o Major win for Israeli's o 1979 Saddam Hussein forces al-Bakr into retirement, war w/ Islamic republic of Iran. Radical Palestinian Nationalism • 1967 sparks new revolutionary spirit • Tried to compel Israel to bargain • 1964, Nasser helps set up the Palestinian Liberation Organization o Umbrella group of Palestinia n resistance movements o 1969 PLO begins to attack Israel in the West Bank • When others supported Palestinian cause, they also used it t pressure rival Arab states o Way for regimes to fight proxy wars against one another Black September • King Hussein Moves against the PLO • Nasser negotiated agreements to end the conflict (died the day after completing it) • Black September terrorist group o First act; kill the Jordanian interior minister o Known for attack on Olympic Village in Munich Germany 1972 The October War and the First Peace Treaty • UN security Council: agrees on Resolution 242: basis of all subsequent peace initiatives • The English version is more ambiguous than the French and Arabic versions • "Constructive Ambiguity" o "territories" What does it mean? o Arab states argue Israel must vacate all of the territory captured in 1967 o Israel: only some territory but not all o Palestinians: straight out reject it • 1967 "three No's" adopted resolution by the League of Arab States o No negotiation with Israel o No Peace with Israel o No recognition of Israel o (admission that Israel is not leaving) • October 1973: Egypt and Syria attack Israel o Egyptian president shows desire only for return of territory not destruction of Israel o Surprise to the Syrians o US supports Israeli's, S yrians pushed back o 1979 Camp David Accords (Israel and Egypt) ending 30 year state of war Israelis give up Sinai Peninsula in return for full diplomatic relations • • Egypt expelled form the League of Arab States • Egypt's President (Sadat) is assassinated. o Internally within Israel • Shift in parties • Non-European Jews rise • Likud Government The War Moves to Lebanon • Likud government more willing to use force on a greater scale • Constant fighting in Southern Lebanon • 1982: second invasion in Beirut: US arranges deal for withdrawal of PLO o Israeli government tries to impose a new pro -Israeli government on Lebanon o Syrian Government assassinates their candidate o US, France and Italy contribute to the Multinational Forces that supervise the rof the PLO and provide security to Palestinians left behind o US and French armies become directly involved in civil war (on the side of the Christian Right) o When MNF withdraws, Lebanese state breaks down • Weak central government, decentralized power structu re (close to the Ottoman millet system in miniature ~ 1946 pact) • 1990: Syria imposes Tariff Agreement that amends but doesn't abolish the 1946 pact The First Intifada and the Gulf War • Intifada: uprising of Palestinians in the west bank and Gaza o Emergence of new grassroots leaders o Israeli prime minister implements brutal policies and gives passive support to Muslim Brotherhood (allows them to receive funding from the Gulf States) o Result: 1993 Oslo Accords: first Israeli -PLO agreement • 1991 Suddam Hussein's armies invade//occupy Kuwait o U.S. brings a coalition to remove the Iraqis (wants oil control) o Gulf War • U.S. sets up military bases in the Arabian Peninsula • Rallying point for Anti -American Islamist militants (led by Osama bin Laden) • Severe Economic sanctions on Iraq • 2003 U.S. kills Hussein The Oil Producing States • Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Algeria, Libya, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar • Rentier states: revenues derived from sources other than taxation of local population o Phenomenon that may inhibit the democratic process o State pays population for loyalty o Vast oil wealth, extensive subsidies for key populations, little government transparency, ruled by small oligarchies • International oil companies worked through consortium model o Paid oil states royalties in exchange for monopoly rights over exploration and production o 1972: Iraq is the first state to successfully nationalize petroleum sector Oil Politics and Neoliberal Reforms • Criticism of the Gulf Oil sates as stooges of the west • OPEC increases prices dramatically post Oct. 1973 war • Arab members have a 5 month oil embargo to protest U.S. airlift of military supplies to Israel & simultaneously portray themselves as guardians of Islam • Growth of the Muslim Brotherhood and rise of "Salafist": Ultra conserv ative groups o Islam is the solution o Mixing politics and faith o Trying to liberalize economies (fail) • Egypt: o Sadat tries to spur economic growth (opens economy to foreign investment) o Loans from IMF and World Bank o Reforms: infitah (opening) o Privatization of state-owned companies, cut backs on subsidies = resentment o Discontent rises Islamism and Islamic Military • Recall the 19 c. modernist movements (importance of adopting a critical stance toward the practice of Islam and on reforming society through education) • Others: 20c. Ideals (anti -imperialism, mass social and political engagement) • Mohammed Reza Shah tries reforms --> Dec. 2978 massive demonstrations begin in Tehran Ayatollah Khomeini: Iran's first post revolutionary Leader • • Goal: open economies, shut down political dissent • Islamic activists more interested in preaching religion than politics of economic liberalization • Islamist militants turn on their sponsors • U.S. still supports Islamic militancy • President Jimmy Carter - biggest covert operation (funding/providing arms/training) through Pakistan to Afghans o Encouraged freedom fighters to join the jihad against the Soviets • These regimes later turn against the United States o U.S.-funded insurgency succeeded in forcing the Soviet Union to wit hdraw from Afghanistan • Insurgency fractures and begins fighting - the Taliban wins • Toppled by the United States after the attacks in 2001 • Combination of government led counter insurgency campaigns and Islamist insurgencies o Cultural phenomenon (Islamic awakening) o Islamic fundamentalism/political Islam: Complex social and cultural movement and Islamist militancy as a single phenomenon. • obscure in nature because it is much more complicated • Much of the activity of the Islamic awakening was not primarioriented toward creating an Islamic political entity • Effort to make society more Islamic o James Gelvin: • Islamo-nationalist group § Seek to change the political orientation of a particular national state • Islamo-anarchist § Seek to undermine the entire global sociopolitical economic regime The Arab Spring • Hope for long-delayed political transformation and social/cultural renewal • Set off by a desperate individual act (man set himself on fire) • Tunisia was the first leader to fall • Egypt follows in protests • Morocco and Jordan - promising political reforms • Yemen's leader usurped • February 2011: o Libyan city of Benghazi has a rebellion o NATO o Air Campaigns o Popular uprising or civil war? • Syria: o 2 issues: proximity to Israel and its role as part of the r esistance to the united states and its main middle eastern allies • Still civil wars occurring. Conclusion (!!!) • The rise of the west isn't the entire story, internal dynamics play a large role too! • There has been a lot of intervention in the recent years • We are still viewing the affects of the Arab Spring • Has a new day dawned? Or will we return to status quo? Reading Notes ~ The Middle East - Ellen Lust Ch. 2 Social Change in the Middle East: MENA = Middle East and North Africa Factors contributing to the Arab Spring Economic Social, Political, Cultural Endogenous • Corruption • Moral outrage over authoritarian • Unemployment rule/injustice • Flexible labor markets • Demand for dignity • High cost of living • Human rights violations Civic activism • • Rise of middle class • Youth bulge Exogenous • Structural adjustment policies to global trade • Demonstration effect of Iran's Green agenda protests • Neoliberal economics • Transnational links • Global financial crisis • WikiLeaks revelations • Economic recession • Democracy norm diffusion Modernization, Development, and Globalization • Stereotypes of the MENA region: o Arab, Muslim, conservative • All were once under colonial rule (minus Iran, Turkey, Israel, Saudi) • All are predominately Arab (except Iran, Israel, Turkey) • All are predominately Muslim(except Israel) • Most are largely Sunni (except Iran, Bahrain, Iraq and Lebanon) • Some have sizable Christian Populations (Lebanon, Egypt, Syria) & Jewish (Iran, Morocco, Tunisia) • Linguistically diverse Others (Iran, Iraq, Mor occo) • Strong working class movements/ trade unions (Iran, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey) • Large communist organizations (Iran, Egypt, S. Yemen, the Palestinians) • All: middle class has received Western-style education • All Developing countries (except Israel) • Links to world society (multilateral agencies/NGOs/Internet) have enabled norm diffusion and demands for sociopolitical change. • Oil economies/poor in other resources (Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE) • Mixed oil Economies (Algeria, Iraq, I ran, Egypt, Tunisia, Syria) • Non-oil (Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Turkey, Yemen) • All social stratification Saudi Arabia Turkey Algeria, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, Syria Libya Saudi Turkey Government Theocratic Secular authoritarian Radical Patriarchal Authoritarian- Monarchy Republics Islamist Conservative privatizing • Post Arab-spring: regime changes are launching Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya are undergoing democratic transitions • Neopatriarchal state: umbrella for the state types of the M.E. o The family constitutes the universal building block of the community o Religion is bound to power and state authority facing challenges from women's education attainment/rights etc. Economic Development and Social Change • 60s-70s globalization Import substitution industrialization (ISI further discussed in ch. 4) • o 55-75 o Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Algeria o Machinery imported to run local industries o Central planning o Large public sector o Oil development sees interesting labor migration patterns (Arab countries within themselves and taking in eastern Europeans and Asians) North Africans and Turks go to Germany, Algerians to France • o Improving education and job opportunities • Majority of MENA population was still a grarian/traditional o Oil-based growth and capital-intensive production limit female labor supply and demand • Patriarchal gender contract reinforced by the oil industry o Unlike Latin America ISI doesn't' evolve into manufacturing for export • 80s o end of oil boom era, many countries in debt o Wage reduction o Intraregional labor flow affected (political disputes) • Size of the middle class continues to expand • Growing inequalities and wage gaps • Demographic Islaminazation: declining numbers of non -Muslims o Decline of Christianity: Political Islam • • Intermarriage • International migration • As Europe has become more multicultural the M.E. has become less so Urbanization and Demographic Transitions • Urbanization: central aspect of social change economic development • Push and pull factors: o Push: of population pressure on natural resources; lack of economic opportunity in rural areas o Pull: perceived economic opportunity • Most rapid growth is in oil -exporting countries o Saudi Arabia, Oman, Libya, UAE, Iran, Iraq o Slowest: Egypt o Least Urbanized: Yemen o Practically city states: Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain • Issues: cities economies can't absorb the population o Unemployment o Shortage of clean water, growth of slums/shantytowns, pollution, inadequate waste disposal systems, power shortages, noise pollution. • Late demographic transition (high fertility and mortality to low fertility and mortality) = youth bulge o Link between level of education and lowered fertility rates • Mass education changes a woman's perception of herself • Men's education helps? § Increased cost of children = negative § Increased knowledge of contraception § Increased though about the future § Decreased family interaction • Population expected to swell o Increasing water demands and land demands challenges with job creation and pol itical inclusion Labor Force Growth, Employment Challenges, Social inequalities • Urban markets unable to absorb growling labor force --> expansion of informal sector, income inequality, unemployment • Female workforce: concentrated in the service sector • Morocco and Tunisia - large percentages of the female workforce are involved in manufacturing • Female unemployment rates remain considerably higher than male rates despite female lower labor force participation rates. • Unemployed are gravitating to the info rmal sector (taxi drivers, construction, domestic workers, souks and bazaars, hairdressers, barbers, seamstresses, tailors, artisans, hawkers, repairmen etc.) o Unregulated, untaxed. • Poverty is increasing • High military expenditures/war impede progress in human development • Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Yemen: top countries by percentage of GDP to military • Large income gaps. Education and Human Development • Social changes associated with rise of mass education: o Decreasing fertility rates o Higher marriage age o Shift in family structures o Changing attitudes/aspirations/behavior o Central role in development of modern states o Essential for economic growth o Key role in nation-building • Facing concerns about educational quality (stretched resources, ed ucation relevance, uneven development) • In recent years, female tertiary education rates exceed those of men. • Education may be a site for conflict over sociopolitical/cultural interests, national identity, religion, political authority. • School can be sued to shape collective memory Unmet potential • regional education level improvement is not reflected in GDP • MENA region has an inability to capitalize on educational development o Poor quality of education system o Mismatch between labor market needs and types of learning, skills and training provided o Resources are mismanaged/stretched • Suggestions: o Autonomy from the government o Coordination across states regionally o Collaboration globally Gender Parity in Education • Differences in perceived returns to higher education among men and women = explanation for women's higher educational attainment? • Sociocultural changes in gender roles/expectations • Women tend to specialize in the humanities and social sciences o Contributes to the mismatch between e ducation and labor market demands • Possible pool of educated women who are likely to challenge their second -class citizenship The Family, Family Law, and Sexuality • Patrilocally extended family is being replaced with nuclear family • Monogamy is becoming the n orm • Early marriage is becoming rare o Good and bad: many delay marriage due to insecurity of being able to provide for family • Virginity remains an important cultural asset • Distinguish between private patriarchy (home) and public patriarchy (state and labor market) • Family law is predicated on the principal on patrilineality o Wilaya: male guardianship - women required to obtain permission to travel • Muslim family law at odds with the need to integrate wom en in development o Not only premodern, but way of retaining family support (in place of fully functioning welfare) • It is the job of the male to care for the family, the state doesn't provide for people Dynamics of Social Change: focus on Women's Rights • Possibilities of changing women's rights depends on dynamics of local and global civil society, social movements, broader regionald and international processes. • Influenced by not only local but global forces • Rising education and smaller family size frees up a woman's time for civic & political engagement • Exclusion from government has prompted more active participation in civil society • Women remain underrepresented • Many women are creating organizations and movements • Literary efforts (books, journals, films) • "NGO-ization" of women's movement in Arab countries Reading Notes ~ The Middle East - Ellen Lust Ch. 3 Institutions and Governance • Current issues: o High levels of poverty, unemployment, insufficient education, health facilities, unequal access to resources, slow development • Why have the political institutions been unable to solve these problems? • Governance: exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources to manage society's problems and affairs o Effective when resources are used efficiently o Institutions are developed that depersonalize/depoliticize the distribution of goods and services o Opportunities equally expanded Overview: 1. Strength of MENA states 2. Regime Types 3. Institutions engaged in governance States • States: human community that successfully claims the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory o Defined territorial boundaries o Legitimacy (acceptance of the community's right to govern; domestic and international) o Monopoly on the use of force • Strong states are able to extract resources from populations and make political decisions that can be implemented • Reach of state is often limited limiting the state's capacity to foster development Challenge of State-building • Explanation for the weakness of MENA states o Challenges of postcolonial state building o 2 theories • Contractarian view of the state (state emerges as a social contract between security seeking individuals and a community that develops to maintain order/grant protection) :: Relative cooperation • Predatory view of the state: state development as an outcome of war - competing groups seeking to expand control. Victors must establish authority and legitimacy of rule • Unlike European states: o established "overnight" o Conflict between elites vying for power o States were founded by not nation -states • Nationalism: socially constructed common identity o Intervention of powerful third parties • Other countries, multinational organizations etc. o Western support plays an importa nt role o Ability of incumbent rulers to obtain the resources necessary to remain in power Weak States • Strong societies, weak states o Conditions are unfavorable, resources are available o Ruling elites remain in power without developing the ability to extract resources/maintain order • The larger the population, the lower government effectiveness • Issue with unstable/fragile states o Unable to provide services/security to the people o International security threat • Where is international intervention justified? Variations in State Strength • Variation: historical experience and institutional legacies, size, geostrategic location, degree of regional intervention, social heterogeneity • Palestinian authority: o Not a state o Given some degree of self rule but is not a state o Doesn't have internationally recognized legitimacy or ability to tax its own people. Control its borders, or life within the borders. • Lebanon: o Issues include war and Syrian control • Yemen: o Unable to solve critical social problems ore establish legitimacy o Faces threats from Al-Qaida & secessionists o Highly depended on help from international actors o One of the most strongly armed populations in the world o Mixes of Islamic law and tribal customary law Small gulf states: • o Strong states: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar o Smallest populations in the region o Resource rich states o Small populations ease pressures and lead to overestimation of state strength What is a Regime: • Set of formal and informal rules that are used to select leaders/policies • Represent the broad rules of a game • Difference between regimes and those in power • Regime does not refer to individuals Regime Types • Till 2011 Arab world is best characterized by resilient authoritarianism • Misconception: the entire MENA region is nondemocratic MENA regimes Ruling elites and in authoritarian regimes last a long times • Monarchies • Majority of world's absolute monarchies • Distinguished by their reliance on family networks in determining succession • Relatively unconstrained sovereignty • Emergence of Monarchies: o 19/20c. Institutions o Hereditary monarchs (right to rule based on bloodlines) o Kings backed by western powers inherited state • Bases of Support: o Formal institutional guarantees of immunity via their subjects o Parliamentarians take oath to the king o Historical, hereditary, religious, procedural legitimacy o Legitimacy: discount rate of rule achieved when people believe that the rulers have the right to govern o Popular mandate is not a source of legitimacy • Challenges to Monarchies: o Distinguish between dynastic and non -dynastic monarchies explain ability to withstand threats o Dynastic: • Members of the ruling family fill the top government positions • Important that family maintains rule o Non-Dynastic: Key jobs held by members not related to the ruling family • • Benefit from their associate with the regime in power • Less likely to see their personal success as tied to maintaining the dynasty -> more likely to challenge the ruler • Forces of Threat and Resilience: o Ability to withstand threats are based on broader strategy of divide and rule o Emphasize political competition and division rather than popular unity Establishing competition makes the king the moderator • o Create and exacerbate div isions • Keeps those below them weak and divided • Resilience during the 2011 Arab Uprisings: o Those that were overthrown had dynasty barred from cabinet o Possibility of promoting democracy while remaining in power o Security forces' ability to put down unrest w ithout significant casualties is key o Others reject cultural and institutional arguments for monarchic stability • 3 strategic decisions § Ability of resource-rich monarchs to offer populations incentive to remain supportive § Ability to draw domestic support from coalitions of support § External support from international actors • Lessen the likelihood of change but do not make monarchies immune to pressures One-Party Regimes: Single Party and Dominant - Party Types • One-Party Regimes o Single Party: one political party officially dominates political power, party chooses the head of state o Dominant party: allows for participation of multiple parties, theoretically permits the alternation of power, dominant party has monopoly on resources and ability to make the rules • Pathways to One-party Regimes: o Came to power: • Emergence through revolution § The more intense and prolonged the struggle and the deeper its ideological commitment the greater political stability of the one=party system § Tunisia and Algeria § Relatively strong national movement that emerged into ruling parties § Party structures established pre independence • Military coups § Military dictatorships § Military leaders are the major force behind the regime transformations
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