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Week 2 Notes

by: Erica Evans

Week 2 Notes Comm106

Erica Evans
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Notes from 1/13
Communication Research Methods
Jennifer Pan
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Evans on Thursday January 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm106 at Stanford University taught by Jennifer Pan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Communication Research Methods in Communication Studies at Stanford University.

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Date Created: 01/14/16
Comm106     Class  3   1/13/2015       Use  R  as  a  calculator     • In  R,  spacing  doesn’t  matter     • Order  of  operations  applies     • Press  enter  to  find  the  result     • Examples:     • 5+5   • 5-­‐5   • 5*5   • 5/5   • sqrt(5)     • log(5)     Look  up  a  function   • type  a  question  mark  before  the  function  to  get  an  explanation  of  it     • Ex:  type  ?log()    to  figure  out  what  the  log()  function  does       Create  a  new  r  script     • Fileà  new  file  à  r  script     • Press  run  (or  command  enter)  to  get  code  into  the  console     • To  send  all  the  code  at  once,  highlight  the  code     • The  console  does  not  get  saved,  but  the  R  script  is  saved  like  a  document       Type  ‘#’  to  write  notes       Objects     • R  stores  information  as  objects.  Once  you  make  objects,  you  want  to  refer  to   them  by  that  name.     • <-­‐    is  the  assignment  operator     • You  can  assign  values  to  certain  objects     • Or  a  string  of  characters  using  quotation  marks     • If  you  reassign  a  new  value  to  the  same  object  name,  the  original  object  will   be  overwritten     • Object  names  are  case  sensitive     • Object  names  cannot  start  with  a  number,  but  they  can  include  a  number     • Object  names  cannot  include  space     • Object  names  can  include  periods  or  underscores       Functions     • ls()  this  function  shows  you  all  the  objects  in  your  environment     • class()  shows  you  what  class  that  object  is:  is  it  a  number,  string,  function   etc?       Vectors   • Vectors  are  one  dimensional  lists  of  information     • c()  creates  the  vector   • name  the  vector  by  typing:           vector_name  <-­‐  c(  “element”,  “element2”,  “element3”,  “etc”)     • Every  element  in  the  vector  is  separated  by  a  comma     • Put  quotations  around  the  elements  in  the  vector,  otherwise  R  will  think  they   are  each  objects     • You  can  combine  vectors  into  a  new  vector  with  the  c()  function  as  well     • Find  certain  ordered  elements  of  a  vector  with  square  brackets.  Ex:  vector[3]     • Find  two  elements  of  a  vector  with  Ex:  vector[c(1,9)]     • Remove  an  element  of  a  vector  with  negative  numbers  Ex:  vector[-­‐4]      


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