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Chapter 1 Nutrition, Food Choices, and Health

by: Abby Notetaker

Chapter 1 Nutrition, Food Choices, and Health HEAL 2800

Marketplace > University of Toledo > HEAL 2800 > Chapter 1 Nutrition Food Choices and Health
Abby Notetaker
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These note cover the first Chapter that was cover in class Tuesday and Thursday January 12/14. There will be a condensed version of this chapter on the study guide that will focus on vocab, classif...
Principles of Nutrition
Emily Van Wasshenova
Class Notes
Principles of Nutrition, Chapter 1




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Notetaker on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HEAL 2800 at University of Toledo taught by Emily Van Wasshenova in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Principles of Nutrition Chapter 1 Nutrition, Food Choices, and Health What influences your food choices? 1. Flavor, texture, and appearance: Mainly “taste,” the number one factor determining our food choices 2. Early influences: The health behaviors we develop as a child are dependent upon cultural, ethical background along with exposure to different foods during childhood 3. Routines and habits: Many of our food habits develop from what is convenient, cost effective, and what is available to you. 4. Restaurant dining: The meals that provided in restaurants are high in calories and are over the recommended portion sizes. 5. Time and convenience: Having a busy schedule can make you settle for what is the fastest and easiest to make. Fast food plays a huge role in the eliminating time for food preparation. When you are busy it is also easy to loose tract of your diet. 6. Economics: Media portrays foods in such a wonderful way and when a lower price is part of the deal we are sure jump at the deal that is given. 7. Nutrition: What we may think is healthy and unhealthy also directs our choices when purchasing food. Many people are well educated on the subject, but others are unaware what is considered good and bad. Why are you so hungry? Hunger and appetite both influence our want or desire to eat. 1. Hunger: The feeling of your stomach grumbling, this means your body physically needs food (actual hunger) 2. Appetite: When you smell something and your brain says “That smells wonderful, I want some of that” This is the external influences telling us we want food when we may not actually be hungry 3. Satiety: A feeling that you are no longer hungry, the drive for hunger has been fulfilled What is Nutrition? “Nutrition is the science that links foods to health and disease. It includes the processes by which the human organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports and excretes food substances.” 1. Basic definition: Provides energy/ energy means calories a. Example: Does water give you energy? i. No, because water has no calories, therefore no energy 2. Difference between foods and nutrients a. Food: provides the energy (form of calories) b. Nutrients: Substance attained from the food, needed for growth and a healthy body 3. Essential Nutrient (3 Characteristics) a. One specific biological function of the nutrient must be found in the body b. If the nutrient is taken away, there will be a decline in certain biological functions c. If the nutrient is then replaced, the biological function will be restored to normal (homeostasis) Why do we study nutrition? The study of nutrition gives us an insight on our quality of life and maintaining our health. We need to be aware of the risk factors from a poor diet, or lack of nutrition. Risks can include many chronic diseases like cancer, chronic diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Six Classes of Nutrients Nutrients give us our calories, which give us energy. Nutrients are also important for growth and development. Lastly, nutrients help regulate the body processes. Calories= Energy 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids (Fats and oils) 3. Proteins 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water Macro vs. Micro Nutrients Macronutrients provide calories. This means we need to consume bigger amounts in out diet. (Needed in grams) 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Lipids (Fats and oils) 4. Water (Does not provide calories but large quantities are needed to be consumed) Micronutrients do not provide calories. This means we do not need to consume as many in our diet. (Needed in milligrams or micrograms) 1. Vitamins 2. Minerals Carbohydrates Provides the majority of the calories in our diet 1. Simple sugars a. Monosaccharides and disaccharides i. Ex. Table sugar b. Absorbed quicker because the sugars are in their simplest form 2. Complex sugars a. Glycogen, starch and fiber i. Ex. Wheat products, oatmeal b. Complex sugars are chains of monosaccharides linked together, therefore it is harder to absorb these sugars because they need to be broken down into their simplest form first. Lipids (Fats and oils) Lipids do not dissolve in water Yield more energy per gram that carbohydrates Fats and oils come from both plants and animals 1. Plant oils a. Liquid at room temperature b. Ex. Olive, Sunflower oil 2. Animal fats a. Solid at room temperature b. Ex. Meats c. It is important to limit our intake of these because it can raise blood cholesterol levels and that can contribute to cardiovascular disease Essential fatty acids can restore homeostasis within the body (Ex. Maintaining blood pressure) Proteins Main structural material in the body Proteins are important components in the blood, body cells, enzymes and immune factors Proteins are formed when amino acids are bonded (linked) together Animals sources 1. Ex. Meat, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs Plant sources 1. Ex. Beans, grains, and some veggies Vitamins Main function is to enable some chemical reactions in the body 1. Fat soluble (A, D, E, and K) a. These vitamins dissolve in fat b. Consumption of too much can lead to toxicity 2. Water soluble (B’s, and C) a. These vitamins dissolve in water b. The body has a hard time storing these Cooking destroys water soluble vitamins more readily than fat soluble vitamins Vitamins have no calories, therefore no energy Minerals Minerals are inorganic substances that do not contain carbon atoms Minerals are no destroyed during cooking but can be lost/dissolved in water 1. Major minerals a. Bigger quantities are needed 2. Trace/minor minerals a. Smaller quantity needed Minerals produce no calories, therefore no energy Water 1. Solvent and lubricant 2. Transports nutrients and waste 3. Regulates temperature Provides no calories, therefore no energy Other important components in food 1. Phytochemicals a. A chemical that is found in plants that is said to reduce risks of diseases b. Ex. Garlic, onions, oranges, berries, chili peppers, etc. Calories Calories give us the energy we need for involuntary (breathing, digestion) and voluntary (lifting, running) physical activity from many sources 1. Carbohydrates: 4 kcal per gram 2. Fats: 9 kcals per gram 3. Protein: 4 kcals per gram 4. Alcohol: 7 kcals per gram (not an essential nutrient) Defining Calories 1. Little “c”: “The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius” 2. Big “C”: this is what is expressed in terms of Calories/energy on food labels 3. 1000 calories= 1 kcal= 1 Calorie (Food) Practice problem: 1 Chocolate Chip Granola Bar Carbohydrate 17 grams x 4 = 68 kcal Fat 3.5 grams x 9 = 31.5 kcal Protein 1 gram x 4 = 4kcal Alcohol 0 grams x 7 = 0 kcal 103.5 kcal Metric system 1. micro: 1,000,000 micrograms per gram (1/ 1,000,000) 2. milli: 1000 milligrams per gram (1/ 1000) 3. centi:100 centigrams per gram (1/ 100) 4. kilo: 1 kilogram is 1000 grams (1000) How do we know what we know about nutrition? The scientific method has given us the procedure to perform tests and eliminate any error. Experiments 1. Observations a. Starting point b. Ex. Diabetes: Many overweight patients are diabetic 2. Case-control studies a. The tracking of diabetes in overweight and normal weight patients 3. Laboratory studies a. Ex. Over feeding mice to see if diabetes develops 4. Epidemiological studies a. Ask questions to a large group of people and find links b. Ex. Eating carbs/sugar causes diabetes i. This is not exactly true, but eating an excess amount of carbs/sugar can lead to weight gain, therefore diabetes c. The intake of carbs/sugar does not directly cause diabetes, but indirectly cause diabetes through weight gain 5. Human studies Obesity Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat relative to lean tissue 1. More than 35% of adults are currently obese 2. Many factors can cause obesity Diet Assessment (Advised proportions) Proteins: 10-35% Carbohydrates: 45-65% Fat: 20-35% (60% animal sources + 40% plant sources) What does having a healthy weight mean? 1. Healthy weight 2. Longer/ healthier life Total diet There is no such thing as “good” and “bad” foods It is all dependent upon portion sizes There is no perfect diet, everyone is different There will be a condensed version on the study guide that will focus on vocab, classification of the six nutrients and practice problems.


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