Plague Terms and Definitions
Plague Terms and Definitions BIOL1006
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliette Demboski on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1006 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Eric Villegas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Power of Plagues in Biology at The University of Cincinnati.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
Plague Terms and Definitions “Plaga” – to strike a blow that wounds. Outbreak – short term and local, only affecting a small group of people. Epidemic – long term, affecting many people and geographical regions. Pandemic – long term, affecting the entire global population. • Diseases become pandemic when infected people (usually not knowing they are infected) travel to different countries/regions and spread the disease. Legionnaires’ Disease – caused by bacteria called “Legionella pneumophila.” • Also known as the Philly Killer, happening in 1976. • Symptoms include high fever, headaches, cough, and muscle aches. • Caught by breathing mists that come from a contaminated water source (air conditioning, whirlpool spas, cooling towers, etc). o The bacterium was living in these water sources. • Can be treated with antibiotics. Toxic Shock Syndrome – caused by bacteria called “Staphylococcus aureus.” • Symptoms include fever, rash (usually a sunburn-like rash), low blood pressure, multi- organ failure, diarrhea, and eventually death. • This bacterium was found on the type of tampons used at that time, which infected women using those tampons for periods of time that allowed it to grow. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) – caused by a virus called “coronavirus.” • 249 cases in 2003 all resulted from one man who was carrying the virus. o The man was a Chinese medical professor who had been treating SARS patients in Guangdong, China and had unknowingly become infected with the virus. • It was discovered to have been spread by chickens, so all of them were killed. • Symptoms include fever, sore throat, cough, malaise, pneumonia, and death. Parasites: • More organisms are parasitic/symbiotic than “free-living” (without a host). • More cells in the human body are from other organisms. • A full spectrum of organisms goes from molecules (prions), to viruses, to protozoa, to worms, to insects. Epidemiology – the study of the occurrence, spread, and control of outbreaks and other diseases by looking for patterns to find predictive diseases. • There is a Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia. Prevalence – percent or proportion of people infected by a disease. Incidence – the rate over time of people infected. Virulence – the kill/death rate and severity of a disease. Host resistance – counterbalance parasite virulence. Basic reproductive ratio – the predictor of disease spread (measures transmission potential). • To persist in a population, each infected person transmits the disease to others. • R 0 represents the number of individuals that each infected person infects at the beginning of an epidemic. • This number (R ) depends on the duration of the infectious period, the probability of infecting a susceptible individual during one contact, and the number of new susceptible individuals contacted per unit of time. 3 Types of Epidemics: • Type I – peaks of outbreaks are regular, but never completely disappear from a large population of people (endemic in the population/region). R 0> 1. • Type II – discontinuous outbreaks that have a temporary absence of the disease in medium-size populations of people. R 0 < 1. • Type III – very irregular and long periods without the disease in small populations, but with the disease being reintroduced to the population/region over time. R 0<< 1. • Countermeasures for epidemics include hospitalization, quarantine, and immunization. Herd immunity – an entire herd or population receives protection without immunizing every individual in the herd (a decreased reservoir). Reservoir – the sum of infected host organisms that can transmit the disease. Reproductive strategies: • R strategy – produce many offspring with many of them being killed or finding another host before reaching adulthood (exponential population growth). • K strategy – produce few offspring nurturing and protecting them for a long time. Transmission – hosts are like islands, the parasite moves from host to host (island hopping). Vectors – living organisms that transmit parasites/diseases (can be an intermediate host). Symbiosis – a word meaning “living together.” • Any two organisms living close in association in or on a host/body. • Usually are of two different species. • Parasitology is the study of living together (symbiosis). • Many different types of symbionts. • Types of symbiosis: o Phoresis – travel together with no physiological or biochemical dependence and with one phoront being larger (the carrier) than the other (the passenger). o Commensalism – one partner benefits from the association while the host is neither harmed or benefited from the interaction (“eating at the same table”). § Example: Entamoeba gingivalis is nonpathogenic, lives in mouths, feeds on dead bacteria, food particulates, and dead epithelial cells lining the mouth (doesn’t harm any healthy tissue of the host). o Mutualism – both partners benefit from the association with obligatory interactions and a physiological dependence to each other. § Example: clown fish feed on invertebrates in anemones, which are harmful to them, and anemones provide food and protection. § Example: termites can’t digest cellulose (don’t have cellulose enzyme to break down plant material) but the bacteria, protists (protozoa), and fungi living in their gut can digest cellulose for them. o Cleaning symbiosis – large marine fish have smaller cleaning fish that eat injured tissue, bacteria, fungi, ectoparasites, etc. o Parasitism – one either harms or lives on the host at their expense causing mechanical injury, chemical damage, robbing nutrients, and stimulating host inflammation/immune response. § Example: intestinal nematode worms and hook worms. § Types of parasitism: • Ectoparasites – live outside of the host. o Example: fleas, ticks, lice, etc. • Endoparasites – live inside the host. o Example: many different types of worms. § Types of parasites: • Obligate parasite – most parasites are obligate and can’t complete their life cycle without spending at least part of it in/on a host. • Facultative parasite – an abnormal interaction as a result of the introduction of a parasite into an environment that is different than its normal/typical host (very pathogenic). • Incidental/accidental parasite – a parasite that enters and attaches to the body of a different host where it usually doesn’t survive (but causes sever disease when it does). o Example: cutaneous larva migrans. • Opportunistic parasite – immune deficiency-dependent disease with a permanent, temporary, or intermittent relationship. • Parasitoid – not a true parasite where the organism does not reproduce in the host and only uses it as a food source. o Example: wasps and tomato hornworms.
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