NU 426 Community Health week 1 notes
NU 426 Community Health week 1 notes NU 426
Popular in Community Health Across the Lifespan
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Black on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NU 426 at Jackson State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Community Health Across the Lifespan in Nursing and Health Sciences at Jackson State University.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
Intro to Community Health Nursing ▯ Chapter 1 - Learning objectives and answers ▯ 1. Define community health and distinguish it from public health. Community health - “identification of needs and the protection and improvement of collective health within a geographically defined area (Community)” Public health - “activities that society undertakes to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy” 2. Explain the concept of community. Collection of people who interact with one another and whose common interests or characteristics form the basis for a sense of unity or belonging. ▯ 3. Identify all 10 leading health indicators. Physical activity Overweight and obesity Tobacco use Substance use Responsible sexual behavior Mental health Injury and violence Environmental quality Immunization Access to health care ▯ 4. Discuss ways that public health nursing (PHN) practice is linked to acute care nursing practice. Increased public health related practices improve quality of life, illness management, and health outcomes, which leads to a decreased need and better outcomes for acute care. ▯ 5. Discuss the two main components of community health practice (health promotion and disease prevention). ▯ Health promotion -All efforts that seek to move people closer to optimal well- being or higher levels of wellness. Goals: Healthy People 2020 -Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death -Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups - Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote quality of life, healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages ▯ ▯ 6. Differentiate among the three levels of prevention. ▯ 1) Primary prevention - prevent an illness from occurring. Ex. teach healthy eating habits to at-risk individuals BEFORE hypertension occurs. 2) Secondary prevention - early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Ex. screen at- risk individuals regularly for pre-hypertension, encourage lifestyle changes and referral to appropriate medical provider. 3) Tertiary prevention - Rehabilitation. Ex. treat individuals with hypertension through medication, encouragement of lifestyle changes, and practice primary prevention toward related individuals. ▯ 7. Describe the eight characteristics of community health nursing. 1) Population is client or unit of care. 2) Primary obligation to achieve greatest good for greatest number of people or population as a whole 3) Processes used include working with the client as an equal partner. 4) Primary prevention is the priority. 5) Strategies are selected to create health - environmental, social, and economic conditions in which populations may thrive. 6) There is an obligation to actively reach out to all who might benefit from a specific activity. 7) Optimal use of available resources to assure best overall improvement in health of population is a key element. 8) Collaboration with a variety of other professions, organizations, and entities is the most effective way to promote and protect the health of people. ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ 1. Describe the four stages of community health nursing’s development. ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 3 ▯ 1. Identify the three core public health functions basic to community health nursing. 1)Assessment - regular collection and analysis of health conditions, risks and resources in a community. 2) Policy development - use of assessment to establish health policies in the best interests of the community. 3)Assurance -Availability of necessary services throughout the community. ▯ 2. Describe and differentiate among seven different roles of the community health nurse. 1) Clinician - care provider. 2) Educator - health teacher. 3)Advocate - pleads and seeks resources on the patient’s behalf. Support the patient’s self determination and independence. 4) Manager - plan, organize, lead, and evaluate. 5) Collaborator - Joint approach, working with others. 6) Leadership role - action as a change agent. 7) Researcher - investigate and problem solve. ▯ 3. Identify principles of sound nursing practice in the community. Standards of practice Standards of care Management essential to all nursing roles Community nursing process: assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation Case management Essential behaviors Decision making Transferring information Relationship building ▯ Chapter 4 ▯ 1. Discuss the concept of evidence-based practice (EBP). Use of evidence or research findings along with clinical judgment and patients’ wishes in making decisions about how to care for patients ▯ 2. List the necessary steps in the process of EBP. 1)Ask the clinical question. 2) Search for and collect the best evidence. 3) Critically appraise the evidence for its validity, reliability, and applicability, and then synthesize that evidence. 4) Integrate the evidence with clinical expertise and patient preferences and values. 5) Evaluate outcomes of the decision or change based on evidence. 6) Disseminate the outcomes of the decision or change. 3. Explore the potential impact of research on community health nursing practice. 1) Public policy and community’s health 2) Effectiveness of community health nursing practice 3) Status and influence of nursing as a profession 4) The nurse’s role in research 4. Identify the community health nurse’s role in conducting research and using research findings to improve his or her practice. 1) Identify an area of interest. 2) Formulate a research question or statement. 3) Review the literature. 4) Select a conceptual model. 5) Choose a research design (experimental [true experiments, randomized control trials, quasi-experimental]; nonexperimental or descriptive). 6) Obtain IRB or Human Subjects Committee approval. 7) Collect and analyze data. 8) Interpret results. 9) Communicate findings. 5. Describe the nature of values and value systems and their influence on community health nursing. Something perceived as desirable or a personally held abstract belief about the truth and worth of thoughts, objects, or behavior. Function as standards that guide actions and behavior in daily situations; code of conduct. 6. Articulate the impact of key values on professional decision making. - Self-determination - Individual autonomy - Well being - state of positive health - Equity - justice, fair or equal treatment 7. Discuss the application of ethical principles to community health nursing decision making. Value of self-determination: Respect the choices of clients. Protect privacy. Provide for informed consent. Protect diminished capacity for self-determination. Value of well being: Reduce or prevent harm and provide benefits to client populations. Measure the effectiveness of nursing services. Balance costs of services against real client benefits. Value of equity: Broadly distributing health goods Deciding which populations will obtain available health goods and services. Chapter 5 ▯ 1. Explain the concept of culture. Beliefs, values, and behavior shared by members of a society and provide a design or roadmap for living. ▯ 2. Discuss the meaning of cultural diversity and its significance for community health nursing. Cultural diversity (cultural plurality): variety of cultural patterns coexisting within a designated geographic area. Cultural diversity creates an increased need for cultural sensitivity in the nurse, as well as awareness of cultural practices. 3. Describe the meaning and effects of ethnocentrism on community health nursing practice. Ethnocentrism: belief or feeling that one’s own culture is best. This can prevent the nurse from showing appropriate respect for cultures different from the nurse’s own. 4. Identify five characteristics shared by all cultures. Learned Integrated Shared Mostly tacit (tacit - unspoken or implied) Dynamic
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