Disease and Settling Down
Disease and Settling Down BIOL1006
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliette Demboski on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1006 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Eric Villegas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Power of Plagues in Biology at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
Disease and Settling Down Human evolution: • Africa – the cradle of human evolution (Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, E. Africa). • Australopithecus – the oldest human species that lived 4.2 million years ago. o Have human ancestors, lived in trees, and were vegetarians. o Australopithecus afarensis (“Lucy”). § Stood upright and began living on the ground. o Relationships between diet, climate, and living habitat of humans? • Homo habilis (“handy man”). o Went extinct about 2.5 million years ago. o Carnivores, hunters, and made tools to hunt their prey. § Increased exposure to animal parasites. o Zoonosis and zoonotic diseases from animals were transmitted to humans. o Small world population of 100,000 people. § Low spread and transmission of diseases. • Homo erectus (stood up in an erect position). o Lived about 1.8 million years ago. o Omnivorous, lived in caves/shelters, and were nomadic hunters and gatherers. o Ate game animals as well as other meats and vegetables. o Technological advancements allowed for the making of tools to start fires and refined tools for hunting and cutting up prey to get the food more easily. o Peiking Man and Java Man 2. o Current population is less than 1 million. • Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal Man and “brutish caveman”). o Lived about 190,000-29,000 years ago. o Remains were found in Neander Valley, Germany. o Lived in the middle eat and western Africa. o Were less advanced than their Homo sapiens ancestors, but co-existed with them for some time and were eventually outcompeted by them. • Cro Magnon Man. o Lived about 200,000 years ago, displacing the Neanderthal Man. o Majority lived mostly in southwestern Europe. o Had superior technology (better weapons). o Had more advanced cultural practices (artwork). o Gave rise to Homo sapiens. • Homo sapiens (“wise man”). o Global spread is believed to be the effect of migration from Africa. § Started in Africa, Asia, and Europe about 200,000 years ago. § Travelled to Australia about 40,000 years ago. § Spread to the Americas from the northern land bridge (connection between northeast Asia and Alaska) about 12,000-35,000 years ago. § As the world population increased there was more crowding of people, which caused an increase in the transmission of infections. Modernization, technology, and infectious diseases: • Initially Homo sapiens were nomadic (hunters and gatherers). • Became settlers (more sedentary) and farmers (evolved language). • An increase in human population leads to an increase in infectious diseases. o Geometric increase in populations. o Increased overcrowding leading to stress, conflicts, and famines. o Increased birth rate from 4-2 year intervals. o Start of a division of labor (job specializations available). • Occurrence of the agricultural revolution. o Controls over populations (less overcrowding). § Evolved superstitions, religions, and writing. o Founder crops and founder herbivorous animals farmed. o Domesticated animals more closely related to hosts and their parasites. Outcomes of human overpopulations: • The current population of 3 billion is predicted to peak at 9.2 billion in 2075. • Not enough fresh water or natural resources like fossil fuels. • Increased levels of air and water pollution, soil contamination, and noise. • Deforestation and loss of ecosystems that sustain oxygen and CO 2 levels. • Changes in atmospheric composition (global warming). • Irreversible loss of land and increased desertification. • Mass species extinctions and high infant/child mortality. • Increased incidences of infectious diseases from overcrowding. • Starvation, malnutrition, diet deficiency diseases, and bad health. • Poverty coupled with inflation and a low level of capital formation. • Low birth weight due to the inability mother’s to get enough resources to sustain a baby from fertilization to birth. • Low life expectancy in countries with faster growing populations. • Unhygienic living conditions for many based upon water resource depletion, discharge of raw sewage, and solid waste disposal. • High rate of unemployment in urban areas that lead to social problems. • Elevated crime rate due to drug cartels and increased theft from people stealing resources they need to survive. • Conflict over scarce resources and crowding that lead to increased levels of warfare. • Overutilization of infrastructure like mass transit, highways, and public health systems. • Higher overall land prices. Planet Earth is finite: • Sustainability issues. • Emerging infectious diseases. • Drinking water. • Sewage treatment and effluent discharge. • Declining natural resources. • Climate change and global warming. • Mass species extinction. • Deforestation and desertification. • Malnutrition and famines. • Stress and immunodeficiency. • Decline in life expectancy. • Resource conflicts and wars (refugees). EID and human population density: • Positive correlation between them. • There is increasing awareness among individuals and governments about ecosystem functions, finite resources, and sustainability. • Goal of rapid economic growth is universal (no politically viable alternative). • Increasing scientific ignorance. • Decreased value of scientific curiosity about the natural world and discovery. • Decreased support for higher education. • Increase in infectious diseases.
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