New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Visualizing Cells

by: Mallory McMullen

Visualizing Cells 4100

Mallory McMullen
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Microbiology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Microbiology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover Dr. Daniels' lectures Weds/Fri: Jan 13 & 15
Charles Daniels
Class Notes




Popular in Microbiology

Popular in Microbiology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory McMullen on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4100 at Ohio State University taught by Charles Daniels in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Microbiology at Ohio State University.


Reviews for Visualizing Cells


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/15/16
Wednesday, January 13, 2016 Visualizing Cells▯ - Resolution: the smallest distance 2 objects can be separated but still distinguished▯ • The human retina has a resolution of 150 micrometers because that is the distance between our rods and cones▯ • Resolution increases as sin of theta increases, i.e. the width of the light cone ▯ • R= (0.5 wavelength) / (numerical aperture); NA= (refractive index)(sin of theta)▯ - Vibrio: curved rod or comma shaped bacteria▯ - Palisades: bacilli that group together at odd angles▯ - Sarcinae: cocci in groups of eight that form cubes▯ - Staphylococci: cocci in grape-like clusters▯ - Streptobacilli: bacilli in rows▯ - Tetrad: groups of four cocci that failed to separate ▯ - The wavelength of visible light is 400-750 nm▯ • The longer the wavelength the lower the frequency▯ • Photons behave like waves when traveling through space and particles when interacting with matter ▯ - For electromagnetic radiation to resolve an object there must be a contrast between the object and its medium, the wavelength of the radiation must be smaller than the object, and the detector must have sufficient radiation▯ - Magnification requires that light travel through a medium with a higher refractive index than air, i.e. a parabolic (curved) glass lens▯ - For an image to be in focus, the plane must be where the wave fronts of the interference are at their maximum airy disk▯ - Immersion oil makes it so light on the edges isn’t lost when the light cone widens and the lens is closer to the object▯ - Most stains are positively charged because the cell envelopes are negative ▯ - A bacteria stains gram positive or negative if it retains the crystal violet stain▯ - Carbolfuchsin is an acid-fast stain used on mycobacterium▯ 1 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 - Spore stains are made of malachite green and heat▯ - Parfocal: a characteristic of the microscope that makes it stay in focus when you change magnification▯ - Dark-field microscopy utilizes light scattering and a special condenser that excludes light transmitted directly through the sample ▯ • This is useful for viewing very small microbes and structures like flagella▯ • It picks up dirt and any other small particles that aren’t necessarily cells, and thhe shape of objects is not entirely resolved▯ - Phase-contrast microscopy utilizes differences in refractive index between cytoplasm and organelles from the surrounding medium to see normally transparent things▯ • It’s not very effective for cytoplasm with a low refractive index▯ - Interference microscopy utilizes two beams of polarized light that is out of phase, i.e. it superimposes interference bands on an image▯ • The cell shape is very clearly defined but it requires a complex optical adjustment and is less effective for organisms with a low refractive index▯ - Fluorescence microscopy has incident light which is absorbed by the specimen and reemitted at a lower energy (longer wavelength) ▯ • Fluorophores either bind via chemical affinity, labeled antibodies, protein fusion, and DNA hybridization ▯ - Confocal microscopy creates sharp 3D images by using a laser beam▯ - Electron microscopy focuses electrons with a magnetic field and allows for 1000 times more resolution than light microscopy▯ - Most biological materials require chemical treatment to increase contrast▯ • We can embed it in a polymer and microtome it, then coat with heavy metals OR spray it onto a copper grid then coat with heavy metals OR flash freeze it▯ - In Cryo-EM we suspend it in water and the specimen looks like glass▯ - In Cryo-electron tomography the image is rotated and we digitally combine the images to visualize the whole object in 3D 2


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.