Bio 111 week 1
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Ellen Romero on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Heather Bruns in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
Concept 1.3 : Scientists make observations and then form and test hypotheses Inductive reasoning: a process of deriving generalizations from a large number of specific observations making a set of specific observations then drawing a more general conclusion ex. All organisms are made of cells “in this tree I found cells” drawback – generalizations that you conclude may not be a representation of all or in all situations (for inductive reasoning the “experiment” is the process of observing where as deductive reasoning uses experiments to asses predictions made about a set of observations) Deductive reasoning: general observations (premises) that allow us to make a specific prediction “if… then” logic ex. If organisms are made of cells, and humans are organisms, then humans are composed of cells drawback – predictions can make you close minded, usually your prediction comes about through careful observation and thoughtfulness on your part and that is hard to ignore when you are looking at what the outcome is -basis of the scientific method- Scientific Method: 1. make observations 2. ask questions 3. develop a hypothesis 4. test the hypothesis 5. interpret the results 6. draw a conclusion Observations & Hypotheses - both reasoning’s are based on observations but differ in their methodology hypotheses: can be tested “explanation on trial” qualities: - consistent with well-established facts - capable of being tested o definitive yes or no - is it falsifiable? o Does it have the potential/ability to be proved false? - Failure to falsify a hypothesis DOES NOT prove that hypothesis The Role of Hypotheses is Inquiry You CANNOT prove what you don’t know CANNOT prove a hypothesis true Make ONE experimental change at a time Designing Controlled Experiments Controls are important is the effect seen due to one specific area A controlled experiment means that control groups are used to cancel the effects of unwanted variables Does not mean that all unwanted variables are kept constant nor eliminated Positive and negative controls: not something you see in observation Positive control demonstrates your experiment works properly under the right conditions Negative control demonstrates your experiment will ONLY work under specific/right conditions Scientific Method results requires: - an open mind - being aware of bias - can be skewed by lack of experimental repetition - can be skewed by sampling error o making an assumption based on results from less than a representative population sampling error the wrong conclusions can be drawn when the sample size is not appropriate Theories in Science Theory: broader in scope than a hypothesis General, and can lead to new testable hypothesis Supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis Principle (law): a long-lasting theory that has held up to repeated testing Universally accepted
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