HY103 Lectures 2 and 3 Professor Jenny Shaw
HY103 Lectures 2 and 3 Professor Jenny Shaw HY103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY103 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Shaw in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
Lecture 2 American Civ HY103 Old Worlds Collide Before 1492 in America ● About 50 million to 100 million people lived in America. Inca Empire ● Hierarchical empire ● Women’s role was in clothes production ● Men’s role was mostly in agriculture ● Their territory was located in South America on the west coast ● They utilized technology like canals and roads. Aztec Empire ● Hierarchical empire ● Location was what is now present day Mexico ● About 1520 million people occupied the land ● Women’s role was to cook and raise the children ● Men’s role was to be in charge of agriculture and to be warriors ● Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec empire ● Technology like aqueducts and floating gardens were used here North America ● 710 million people populated North America at this time ● More sparsely populated than other two empires ● Very diverse ● Pueblo Bonito is where present day New Mexico and Arizona are located, it had about 200 villages, 12 towns, and about 15,000 people lived there. It was a hierarchical society. ● Cahokia what is present day known as St.Louis, had Mississippian cultures, which meant that it was a highly stratified society. Population size was about 40,000 people. Home surrounded a ceremonial ground. Eastern Woodlands Indians ● Home to the Algonquin and Iroquois Indians ● Family based village life ● agricultural society and matrilineal society (Women were more of the important roles) ● Not a hierarchical society ● Marriages were not permanent in this society (which was very different from the Europeans way of life) ● Women were in charge of the agriculture while men sat around and waited to hunt Europe 1500 ● Main focus in Europe was to find sea routes to the Middle East and the East. Key Events for European Monarchies 1. 1469 Crowns of Castile and Aragon unify Spain (which created a very powerful monarchy) 2. Rise of Tudor dynasty in England, which ends generation fighting in 1485 (creates more stability in England) 3. Reconquista in Spain muslim authority ends, Jews either convert to Catholicism or leave the country of Spain in 1492 4. 1517 (start of the 16th century) Protestant Reformation begins as a result of the Martin Luther’s published book Ninety Five These (new founding of the new form of Christianity) 5. 1545 Counter Reformation by Roman Catholic Church(they were seeking to strengthen their church) Africa ● Most diverse continent at the time ● 80 million people inhabited, mostly living south of the Sahara Desert. ● Mali Empire one of the world's largest in the century, very wealthy empire in the 14th century. West Africa ● This was where most slaves in North America would soon come from. ● Mostly rural area ● 11 million people inhabited this place ● City states controlled education, arts, and the legal systems Going East (Portuguese Navigation) ● They were excellent with ships ● Established a vast global trading network in 1575 ● Azores were key in sugar production Christopher Columbus (Italian) ● First to travel west (although he really thought he was traveling east and when he arrived at Cuba he really thought he was in Japan.) Religion and Conquest Requerimiento a document that legalized colonization by informing Native Americans: 1. They were on Spanish soil 2. They were not Catholic like themselves 3. If the refused to acknowledge numbers 1 and 2 it would lead to war, slavery, or death. 4. The Spanish weren't doing this to purposely be mean, they really thought this would better the Native Americans Lecture 3 Early English Encounters and First French Forays The Columbian Exchange ● This event was really the turning point for everyone, without this event many things that we know today wouldn't exist in this country. ● For the Americans because of the Columbian exchange we gained different types of grass, sugar cane, coffee beans, domesticated livestock such as pigs and cows, diseases such a influenza, smallpox, measles, etc, bananas, citrus fruits, and grains like wheat, rice, barley, etc. ● For the Europeans they gained things like pumpkins, potatoes, tomatoes, corn, beans, avocados, and sweet potatoes. ● Some consequence of the exchange were that it radically changed the makeup of the world's population. Early English Encounters Gentlemen Adventurers 1. John Cabot Voyages from 1497 to 1498, he founded what is known today as New Finland and brings back thing like animal feces, to the King to show off but the King wanted something more so he sent him off on another voyage which he never returned from. 2. There are many other gentlemen that sailed across the Atlantic for example Richard Hore. Elizabeth I Enterprise ● Elizabeth I was determined to project English powers oversea. ● She defeats the Spanish Armada (navy) ● Creates a capitalistic model of colonization by having private investors create a joint stock company (for money to continue voyages) because she didn't want to take money out of her own power like previous rulers. ● The profits from the stock financed colonies. Roanoke (The lost colony) ● Was settled in 1585, and founded by Sir Walter Raleigh under Queen Elizabeth I rule. ● They named this new found land Virginia after Elizabeth I’s virginity. ● Members of the first colony included, an apothecary, a Jewish Metallurgist, Thomas Hariot who was a mathematician, and John White who was an artist. ● Roanoke was later destroyed by the Spanish Armada. John White Paintings vs Theodore de Bry’s Engravings ● Theodores engravings of John White's painting “Man and Woman Eating” was much more detailed for a few reasons. One of his reasons was to show the elite people in Europe, the people who were rich enough to buy the books these photographs were in, wat it was really like in Northern America. Another reason was because he wanted to send messages through certain details. For example de Bry puts a bare landscape in the background of the engraving to send the message that they're open land for people to colonize. Another message he tries to convey is the muscular structure, in which he indicates to the Europeans that they are all the same. First French Forays 1. Giovanni de Verrazano made his voyage in 1524 trying to find the northwest passage to the Pacific Ocean (which never occurred because there isn't a northwest passage to the Pacific). However he does map the east coast of Northern America and later persuades the French to continue with their voyages. 2. Jacques Cartiers made his voyage to North America and finds himself near Canada where he encounters Micmac Indians and trades his french knives, kettles and beads, for their expensive furs. French Jesuits and Conversions ● Did Not have financial backing from their churches so they ended up becoming accused to different cultures because of their lack of money. They understood the importance of comprehending Indian culture in order to try and encourage conversion.
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