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Political Science - Chapter 1 - Notes

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by: AK315

Political Science - Chapter 1 - Notes Political Science 20

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Notes for Chapter 1 of the course PS20 taught by Prof. Johns
World Politics
Class Notes
political science, Chapter 1, Introduction, World politics
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"Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much AK315!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol"
Jazmyn Schiller

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AK315 on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Political Science 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by JOHNS, L.N. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see World Politics in Political Science at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Star Star Star Star Star

Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much AK315!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

-Jazmyn Schiller


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Chapter 1 - Historical Introductions Introductory ideas: • World politics basically looks at how people and countries of this world get along. • In the world of international relations, there is a fine line between conflict and co-operation which is a large part of politics; trying to determine whether there is scope for conflict or co-operation. • Theories and Puzzles are the foundations • Paradigm - the ‘worldview underlying the theory of a particular subject’. It’s the way in which you think about the world. Analysis of world politics occurs on 3 levels:       1. International level - interactions between whole countries and governments and international institutions like IMF, WTO, WHO etc.
 2. Domestic level - interactions on a much smaller level, within nations. This could be political parties like Republicans vs Democrats. It could be businesses, labor unions, educational institutions and demographic groups.
 3. Transnational level - interactions between groups whose members spread borders. Religious bodies like those belonging to Islam and Christianity are massive and they spread borders. Terrorist groups like Al Qaeda and ISIS spread borders. NGO’s like Oxfam and Amnesty also are examples.
 No one level is better than the other. They are all interconnected. There are 3 main ‘perspectives’ we can adopt (Rational change paradigm): 1. Realist - Focused on security. Believes state is important. A nation must protect itself and gain strategic advantage. International institutions are useless. Mainly autocratic and communists. Coercion and bargaining is the way they operate. Security and military might displayed. 
 e.g.: Russian invasion of Ukraine + North Korea (NK) nuclear testing + Iran nuclear acquisitions + Syria’s use of nuclear weapons is a threat to US
 2. Liberal - Focused on economy and co-operation. More peaceful. Considers others as important, especially the people and domestic groups. Believes that wealth is an important factor. International institutions are important. Mainly democratic countries. Free trade, agreements and treaties are more common way of operating.
 e.g.: TPP trade agreement between 12 nations + India opening its doors to free trade + China sea dispute is about fighting for oil beneath as China is world’s largest energy consumer + Syria’s economic contribution is not valuable so US should not invade.
 3. Constructivist - Focused on beliefs, values and identity of ‘who we are’. May be peaceful or not, depending on the image it wants. Considers others to be important and not just state. International institutions play a part. Usually complies or rebels and cares a lot about what others think of them. They are wary.
 e.g.: US airstrikes to get support + China wants claim over ‘South China’ sea + Iran stops nuclear weapons as part of ‘compliance’ with international community + US is known for being a facilitator so it must intervene against Assad regime and gain recognition.           Timeline of world events: • Mercantilist Era (1500’s) 1. Power = money = power = money (it’s a cycle) 2. Europe colonized countries, expanded military power, exploit local resources and set up trade/import 3. Countries like Nigeria, Cameroon etc. had their resources exploited and land stolen. 4. The Mercantilists regulated prices of goods, influenced supply & demand, set restrictions on where to buy and sell (like Tobacco and Rice in the US could only be sold to the Europeans which lowered prices for US farmers) 5. Before this period, trade was bad and there was isolation
 • Pax Britannica (1815-1914) 1. A very peaceful time 2. European co-operation was high and there were democracies everywhere 3. Free trade was encouraged and barriers to trade were removed • World War I (1914-1918) 1. Germany, Austria and Ottomans vs Rest 2. Hostile coups 3. Loss of life and widespread destruction • World War II (1939-1945) 1. The Axis (Germany, Italy and Japan - fascists) vs The Allies (Soviet Union, US, UK and France) 2. Huge loss of life (genocide in Germany + 25 million casualties of war) 3. Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 4. Axis lost eventually 5. Economic impacts and Infrastructure impacts • Cold War (1947-1991) 1. US-Russia tensions 2. Both sides had nukes so it was a deterrent 3. It was a ‘verbal’ war           Historical definitions you need to know: 1. UN - A collective security organization founded in 1945 after WWII. It has 190 members and includes all recognized states.
 2. Warsaw pact - A military alliance formed in 1955 to bring together the Soviet Union and its cold war allies in Eastern Europe and elsewhere. It dissolved in 1991 as the cold war ended.
 3. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty organization) - A military alliance created in 1949 to bring together the US, Canada and the Western European allies forming the American bloc during the cold war. Operates on the principle that an attack on one, is an attack on all.
 4. P-5 - The 5 permanent members of the UN security council; the US, UK, France, Russia and China.
 5. League of nations - A collective international security organization formed after World War 1. The league was supplanted by the US after World War 2 and was dissolved in 1946.
 6. Treaty of Versailles - The peace treaty between the Allies and Germany that formally ended the war on June 28, 1919.
 7. Pax Britannica - A century long period of peace beginning with Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815 up till WWI in 1914 - during which Britain’s diplomatic and economic influence contributed to peace and economic openness.


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