Vertebrate Zoology Week of Jan 18th
Vertebrate Zoology Week of Jan 18th BIO 370
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikayla Huber on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 370 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Denardo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Zoology in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
Week of Jan 18 th • Necessary Definitions • Clade (taxon) – group of organisms with a common ancestor • Sister taxon – closest relative • Outgroup – close, ancient, non-relative • morphy – trait • Plesiomorphy – ancestral trait • Apomorphy – derived trait • Syn/Sym – shared trait • Aut – unique trait • Homologous – trait from a common ancestor • Homoplasy – similar traits that are not from a common ancestor • Monophyletic – all descendants of a common ancestor • *For Dr. Denardo’s class, if a cladogram group is in quotations then it is NOT a monophyletic group. • Paraphyletic – share a common ancestor, but not descendants are included • Polyphyletic – does not include the common ancestor of all the taxon members • *In order to be a vertebrate, an organism must have a CRANIUM. They do NOT need to have actual vertebrae. Jan 20 Jawless Vertebrates & the origin of jawed vertebrates Evidence for a marine origin Phylogenetics: All non-vertebrate chordates and other deuterostome invertebrate phyla are exclusively marine forms Paleontology: First fossils are found in the ocean sediments Comparative physiology: Osmolality of body fluids of out-groups match those of marine surroundings “Agnathans” (jawless fishes) *He said he will not require you to know these fish’s scientific names, but you should know their common name. Myxinoidea (hagfish) *Hagfish and lampreys were Symplesiomorphies They were both elongated, parasitic, cartilaginous, adults marine, bottom-dwelling Petromyzontoidea (lampreys) Transitional features Vertebrae, dorsal fins, eyes Week of Jan 18 th *Important Life-history Anadromous (breed in fresh water) Kidneys that let them maintain their ion balance Semelparous (breed then die) Ammocoestes (sedentary, filter-feeding larvae) “Cyclostomes” (round mouth) Round sucking mouth, no sets of paired fins and no reproductive ducts Conodont (cone tooth) Notochord, myomeres, large eyes, cranium They had elements arranged in the pharynx, this was the first mineralized tissue of vertebrates Mineralized tissue Enamel, dentine and bone are all vertebrate novelties “Ostracoderms” (shell skin) Craniums, first dermal bones and first fins Gnathostome (jaw mouth) transition They allowed animals to cut large pieces of food, they could manipulate items, and they possibly aided in gill ventilation *Jaws evolved from “Agnathans” Extinct Jawed fish mentioned Placoderms (plate skin) Heavily armored, were able to turn their head, jawed but toothless “Acanthodians” (spiny) Paraphyletic group, gaping mouths with teeth, up to 6 pairs of ventral fins 9 Autapomorphies of jawed vertebrate (compared to Agnathans) 1. Ribs (muscle anchors) 2. Spiracle (gas exchange) 3. Semi-circular canal (orientation, later became ears) 4. Olfactory bulbs (smell) 5. Jaws 6. Gill skeletons (aids in filter feeding) 7. Hypobranchial musculature (suction) 8. Conus arteriosus (pumping chamber) 9. Horizontal septum (locomotion and sensory)
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