August 29th, 2016
August 29th, 2016 PSYCH 1101
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
Popular in Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Notetaker on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Cornell University taught by Pizarro, D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 227 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
8/29/16 Methods Psychology Uses ● Observation: Strengths and Limitations ● Experimentation ○ Control group v experimental group: should be the same except for the thing you manipulate ○ Gold standard of science, can determine causality ○ Random assignment (each person has a likelihood of being assigned to either group) ○ Manipulate something (independent variable) ○ Measure the outcome ( dependent variable) ● Confederate: the person who participates in taking data for the study ● Middlemist, Knowles, & Matter (1977) ○ Prediction: the mere presence of others would delay the onset of urination ○ Experiment: Participants visiting three urinal bathroom randomly assigned to one of three conditions ■ Confederate stood immediately adjacent to participate ■ Confederate stood one urinal away ■ Participant alone ○ Independent variable: time ○ Dependent variable: urination ○ Alone<one urinal buffer<Directly adjacent (Results) ● Limits to Experimentation ○ Not everything can be manipulated ○ Convenience ○ Ethical considerations ○ Even if possible, experiments can contain confounds ○ Experimentation requires an intentionally constrained, controlled, often artificially controlled environment ○ May limit prediction because the real world is much more complex ● Applying the Scientific Method: Does Watching Violent Media Make Kids Violent? ○ General principle: humans learn through observation and mimicry. ○ Specific prediction: watching the violent television will make people more violent ○ Observe, measure, manipulate the world and see if there is evidence for this claim. ■ Come up with the definition of violent that people can agree on. ● “Operational” Definition of Violence ○ A specific quantifiable description of the thing you're studying ○ Operational definition of Violence in Media ○ Operational definition of Violence of Kids ● Many Possible Methods ○ Observation ■ Record the amount of kids watch unobtrusively ■ Observe behavior in playground ○ Selfreport/ peerreport ■ Ask kids what they watch on tv ○ Experiment ■ Show one group a violent show, show one group a non violent control show ■ Have them play with other kids right after and observe behavior ■ Or have them write a story and have researchers who are blind to condition code for them violent words ● Which level of explanation do people look to use? ○ Evolution, ○ Biology, or ○ Culture ○ Individual development, ○ individual differences/ personality, ○ Situation /social context ● Why are Humans Violent ○ Evolutionary: did violent behavior provide selective advantage ○ Biological: what are the hormonal mechanism ○ Cultural: cultures or subcultures encourage violence? ○ Developmental: at what age does violence emerge? ○ Personality: are certain traits associated with violence?
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