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August 29th, 2016

by: Chandler Notetaker

August 29th, 2016 PSYCH 1101

Chandler Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the first week of class, the first lecture on the methods of psych. He bases the rest of his notes and lectures on these notes
Introduction to Psychology
Pizarro, D
Class Notes
scientific, method
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Notetaker on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Cornell University taught by Pizarro, D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 227 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Cornell University.


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Date Created: 01/15/16
8/29/16    Methods Psychology Uses­     ● Observation: Strengths and Limitations  ● Experimentation  ○ Control group v experimental group: should be the same except for the thing you  manipulate   ○ Gold standard of science, can determine causality  ○ Random assignment (each person has a likelihood of being assigned to either  group)  ○ Manipulate something (independent variable)   ○ Measure the outcome ( dependent variable)  ● Confederate: the person who participates in taking data for the study   ● Middlemist, Knowles, & Matter (1977)  ○ Prediction: the mere presence of others would delay the onset of urination  ○ Experiment: Participants visiting three urinal bathroom randomly assigned to one  of three conditions  ■ Confederate stood immediately adjacent to participate   ■ Confederate stood one urinal away  ■ Participant alone   ○ Independent variable: time   ○ Dependent variable: urination  ○ Alone<one urinal buffer<Directly adjacent (Results)   ● Limits to Experimentation  ○ Not everything can be manipulated   ○ Convenience  ○ Ethical considerations  ○ Even if possible, experiments can contain confounds   ○ Experimentation requires an intentionally constrained, controlled, often  artificially controlled environment  ○ May limit prediction because the real world is much more complex  ● Applying the Scientific Method: Does Watching Violent Media Make Kids Violent?  ○ General principle: humans learn through observation and mimicry.   ○ Specific prediction: watching the violent television will make people more violent   ○ Observe, measure, manipulate the world and see if there is evidence for this  claim.   ■ Come up with the definition of violent that people can agree on.  ● “Operational” Definition of Violence   ○ A specific quantifiable description of the thing you're studying   ○ Operational definition of Violence in Media   ○ Operational definition of Violence of Kids  ● Many Possible Methods  ○ Observation   ■ Record the amount of kids watch unobtrusively   ■ Observe behavior in playground   ○ Self­report/ peer­report  ■ Ask kids what they watch on tv  ○ Experiment   ■ Show one group a violent show, show one group a non violent control  show   ■ Have them play with other kids right after and observe behavior   ■ Or have them write a story and have researchers who are blind to  condition code for them violent words   ● Which level of explanation do people look to use?   ○ Evolution,   ○ Biology, or  ○ Culture   ○ Individual development,   ○ individual differences/ personality,   ○ Situation /social context   ● Why are Humans Violent  ○ Evolutionary: did violent behavior provide selective advantage  ○ Biological: what are the hormonal mechanism  ○ Cultural: cultures or subcultures encourage violence?  ○ Developmental: at what age does violence emerge?  ○ Personality: are certain traits associated with violence?   


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