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PSYCH 344 - Week 2 Notes

by: Aryn Singer

PSYCH 344 - Week 2 Notes PSYCH 3440

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Psychlogy > PSYCH 3440 > PSYCH 344 Week 2 Notes
Aryn Singer
U of L
GPA 3.48
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These are the notes from Jan. 8th to Jan. 15th of Dr. Petry's Physiological Psychology class. Please enjoy and feel free to inform me of way to make my notes even clearer and available to you.
physiological psychology
dr heywood petry
Class Notes
Physiological Psychology Dr. Petry




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aryn Singer on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3440 at University of Louisville taught by dr heywood petry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see physiological psychology in Psychlogy at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience (Section 1.1) - “Neuroscience” as a term was founded in 1969 o 400 founding members of the field – 400,000 present day members  Four Fields of Neuroscience o Clinical Neuroscience (MD/PhD) o Theoretical Neuroscience (PhD) o Experimental Neuroscience (PhD) o Technical Support (BS, MS)  Subfields of Neuroscience by Analysis Level o Cognitive o Behavioral o Systems o Cellular o Molecular  Origins o Egyptians (3000 BC – 1700 BC)  1 written accounts of brain anatomy  Brain discarded; heart considered as the seat of consciousness o Prehistoric Brain Surgery (5000 BC)  Trepanning or Trephination  Holes drilled into the skull to alleviate headaches or purge demonth a cure for ailments o Ancient Greece (4 Century BC)  Hippocrates  “Father of Western Medicine”  Brain is the seat of intelligence  Aristotle  Contradicted Hippocrates; heart is the seat of intelligence  Brain acted as a “radiator” for the body, and cooled the blood for the heart to pump o Rome (2 ndCentury BC)  Galen  Gladiator physician; cadavers used for brain dissections  Theory on brain fluids running through nerves like blood through veins o Unknown  Vesalius  Detailed drawings of brain dissections; offered no change to Galen’s view o France  Decartes  Philosopher & Mathematician  Advocate of fluid-mechanical theory o Nerves were hollow -> fluid of the brain was passed through these hollow nerves -> caused muscle movement  Founder of the Pineal gland o Pineal Gland – “source of the soul”  Galvani  Stimulation of a frog nerve with an electrical current o “Animal Electricity”  Johannes  Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies o Hypothesis that nerves have a specific purpose, stimulated those nerves will relay the message they were formed to relay o Bundles of nerve fibers were discovered, but not individual neurons  Neural Net Theory o The brain consists of a continuous network. o Golgi Stein – the staining of individual groupings of nerves to understand the nerve structure and the nerve impulses.  Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) o Drew stains of nerve fibers to catalogue the various structures and appearances; Golgi Stein o Neuron Doctrine – neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system Cells of the Nervous System (Section 1.2)  Neurons o Structure  Cell body – “Soma”  Dendrites*  Axon*  *The dendrites and axon of a cell are called Neurites*  Synapses o Soma  Contains an abundance of organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.)  Microtubules and Neurofilaments  Allow for the flow of material between the Axon Terminal and the Soma o Dendrites  Branching fibers that get narrow near their ends, lined with synaptic receptors  Receives information through synaptic receptors; the more area the dendrites cover, the more information received.  Dendritic Spines – short outgrowths that increase the surface area of Dendrites o Axon  1 Axon per Neuron  An axon may split in several directions, known as a Bifurcation  Axons send and retrieve recycled information through the Axon Terminal  Axons can be Myelinated or Un-myelinated  Myelin Sheath – an insulating material produced by glial cells which speeds up production of an impulse and prevents cross-communication. o Most vertebrate axons have myelin sheaths; invertebrate axons are often un-myelinated.  Nodes of Ranvier  Gaps between the myelin sheath where impulses jump from one node (gap) to another.  Anterograde and Retrograde Movement  Impulses sent out from the Soma through the Axon Terminal – Anterograde Movement  Impulses sent back to the Soma through the Axon Terminal – Retrograde Movement o “Retro” = “Throwback Thursday” o Retrograde = “Throwback” to the Soma o Synapse  Communication between neurons  Neurotransmitters are sent through gaps – called synapse - between dendrites’ synaptic receptors.  Most synaptic receptors and communication between neurons are found on the dendrites; very few are found on axon.  Classification: o # of Dendrites Extending from the Soma  1. Unipolar – a single dendrite  2. Bipolar – two dendrites  3. Multipolar – 3+ dendrites o Dendritic Fields and Arbors  Field – the area the dendrites need to cover  Arbor – the branching of the dendrites to cover as much of the field as possible o Connections  Sensory – relating what’s going on directly to the brain  Motor – nervous system to muscle  Interneurons – The cell’s dendrites and axon are contained within a single structure; inhibitory, tightens the transmission of circuits o Axon Length  Projection Neurons – one structure to another (pyramidal)  Interneurons – local circuit neurons; single structure (stellate)*  Stellate interneurons give off the appearance of small stars or fireworks.  Glial Cells o - no action potentials, glial cells serve separate functions o 4 Basic Shapes/Types  Astrocyte  Provides structure to presynaptic terminals and shields the cells from surrounding chemicals  Helps synchronize axon activity by recycling ions released by axons  Guides the formation and elimination of synapses  Eats waste materials  Controls the amount of blood flow to a brain area  Dilates blood vessels to bring more nutrients to areas in need  Oligodendrocytes  Provides 30-50 axons with myelin sheaths o Primarily to the brain and spinal cord  Schwann Cells  Provides one myelin sheath per dendrite attached; similar function without the same efficiency  Microglia  Migrates and digests waste products; acts as part of the immune system  Contribute to learning by removing weaker synapses  Blood-Brain Barrier o Semi-permeable barrier between the blood and the brain, produced by cells in the wall of the brain’s capillaries  Keeps out unwanted chemicals and viruses that the body could not replace if our immune system destroyed that infected cell.  Small, uncharged molecules – ex. Oxygen and water – pass through  Molecules that dissolve in the fats of the membrane also cross easily  Vitamins A and D  Antidepressants and other psychiatric drugs  Illegal drugs (ex. Heroin)  Glucose Neural Communication (Section 1.3) Neural Communications: Electrical  Resting Potential  Action Potential  Conduction of the Action Potential Resting Potential  Difference of electrical charge between inside and outside of the neuron and the neuron’s membrane. o Measured w/ Voltmeter  Giant Squid Axon Test  Advancing electrode through seawater into giant squid axon  Difference between outside and inside of the neuron membrane is -70mV o Protein subunits along the membrane allow ions to pass in and out of the neuron through ion channels selectively. Distribution:  Inside the Neuron – Potassium (K+) and Anion (A-)*  Outside the Neuron – Sodium (Na+) and (Cl-)* o * The + and – refer to the charge of each element listed both in and outside of the cell membrane. Basis of Neuron Resting Potential 1. Differential Membrane Permeability a. The membrane acts as a wall against unwanted proteins and viruses, selectively allowing certain ions to pass into the cell in various increments. 2. Concentration Gradient (Diffusion Forces) a. Diffusion of ions equally throughout the interior and exterior of the neuron to achieve balance. 3. Voltage Forces a. Opposite charges attract; same charges repel 4. Sodium-Potassium Pump a. Membrane actively pumps and regulates potassium and Sodium in and out of the cell in equal measures i. (i.e. 3 ions of Sodium are pumped into through the cell membrane; 2 ions of Potassium are pumped out through the cell membrane); outside the cell, there are 10x as many sodium ions. Ions and Basis of Neuron Resting Potential Ions Membrane Concentrati Voltage Sodium- Permeabilit on Gradient Forces Potassium y (Diffusion) Pump Sodium (Na+) Low In In Balanced with *(diffuses into *(positive Potassium the cell) charges move present within into the cell) cell Potassium High Out In Balanced with (K+) *(diffuses out * Sodium of the cell) present outside the cell Chloride (Cl-) Medium In Out N/A **(diffuses **(negative into the cell charges move alongside out of the cell) sodium at higher permeability rate) Anion (A-) None Out Out N/A ***(there is no ***(no movement movement between the between inside and inside and outside of the outside of the cell) cell) Fluctuations of Resting Potential  Towards 0mV (more polarized) o Depolarization o Excitatory  (i.e. If -70mV were to fluctuate towards 0 as -65mV)  Away from 0mV (less polarized) o Hyperpolarization o Inhibitory  (i.e. If -70mV were to fluctuate away from 0 as -90mV) *Fluctuations can stimulate to artificially produce electrical currents in the nerves within axons. Action Potential  Charge of membrane potential over time; reaching beyond the threshold and causing an extreme fluctuation which later becomes hyperpolarized, and finally returns to a depolarized state. o The action potential is a message sent through the neuron along the axon terminal. Properties  “All-or-None” Law o No “partial” action potential; the fluctuation will remain consistently extreme with similar results and processes  Rate Law o The intensity of the stimulus is signaled by the RATE (frequency) of firing  # of action potentials over a set time Refractory Periods  Absolute o Length of time after a completed action potential where another is not possible.  Relative o Another, weaker, action potential triggered by intense, excessive stimulus of considerably higher strength than previous stimuli. Conductance of the Action Potential - Conduction of action potential down an axon  Myelinated Conductance o Potential jumps from node to node in what is called Saltatory Conduction  Speed of the action potential is increased dramatically in comparison to unmyelinated conductance  Unmyelinated Conductance o Potential is conducted slowly, in intervals, down an axon from the axon hillock.  Axon Hillock – the beginning of the conductance of the action potential


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