ANS 042 Week 1 and 2 Lecture Notes
ANS 042 Week 1 and 2 Lecture Notes ANS 042
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aiden Leong on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 042 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Anita Oberbaur in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 434 views. For similar materials see Introductory Companion Animal Biology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
Welcome to Animal Science 42 and to my notes! Name’s Aiden and I hope you enjoy! Jan. 4 Intro to Class and Overview I. ANS 42 a. Disease, genetic, physiology, biology, etc. b. Similarities and differences in interaction with humans II. Exam a. All materials/questions will be from the worksheet III. What are Companion Animals a. Politically correct way to say ‘pet’ i. ‘pet’ is too broad of a term, which animal is it? ii. Definition: Animal of domesticated or tamed, kept as favorite, treated with indulgence and fondness 1. Indulgence tolerance of the animal, god pees on floor: get mad clean up, friend pees on floor: unfriends the asshole iii. Usage 1. Guard dogs, K9 for police, research, service dogs, etc. b. Many animals discussed in class but dogs and cats have the most research behind them c. How pets came to be i. Education tool for the individuals (children mostly), as temporary play things 1. Concept: As the children interacted with the animals, they observed them and in turn nature itself. This will make better hunters/gatherers more food for tribes d. Humans have social needs i. Animals fulfill affiliative requirements ii. Basic human nature, even a hermit will have some sort of animal with them iii. Animals provide some sort of benefit 1. That affiliative need in i. 2. Therapy dog and cats for ill people 3. Readers best friends children reads to dogs or cats better skills in reading and comprehension also got to play with an animal so it’s pretty cool e. Interaction Benefits i. Help cardiovascular benefits 1. Doesn’t need to pet, even observation can help a. Fishes in dentist office ii. P.S 80% of families consider pets as a family member iii. Animals can help with human and human interaction too 1. Dating websites that main focus is if they have a dog or cat 2. Easier to start a conversation IV. Concept of Domestication a. Domestication Archaeozoologist definition of domestication species that’s been adapted in captivity for purposes of economic profit to human community and human community maintains complete mastery over breeding, territory, and food i. Cultural control Discussion for Jan. 4 I. Different Philosophy a. Extreme Left Animal Rights, Eliminate all types of animal use and abuse b. Extreme Right Exploitation, Animals are for humans to utilize II. How to assess welfare a. Pain and stress i. Behavior 1. Guarding, limping, food and water intake, alertness ii. Physiology 1. Stress hormone – corticosteroid 2. Weight – body condition scores b. Minimum requirements i. Space ii. Allow performance of natural behavior 1. social behavior 2. reproductive behavior iii. Nutrition iv. Minimize pain and discomfort v. Environmental enrichment(?) c. Responsibility i. Be informed ii. Read about all sides of arguments, everything is biased iii. Be informed on END goals when supporting an animal welfare organization d. Research and Animal Welfare i. Reduce – minimize number of animals used to obtain data Jan. 6 Process of Domestication There is a handout posted for today – process of Domestication Parallels I. Domestication a. Adaptation to living with humans i. Bred in captivity ii. Economic value iii. Complete control – breeding, territory, food b. Takes time and generations to fully domesticate i. There is a difference in a domesticated species and a wild species c. Tame definition: the state in which an individual animal has reduce tendency to flee from humans i. Tame is mostly a single individual 1. Might not produce a tame offspring ii. Can be considered the first step in becoming domesticated iii. Wild tame domesticated ------ Dingo (can be a continuum) 1. Estimated to about 30 generations for complete process 2. Still need to consider how fast each species produce a. Mice will domesticate faster than elephants d. Feral an individual of a domesticated species that no longer is controlled by humans i. Not associated with human community 1. Early Californian era, look at the small islands around California 2. Spaniards put sheeps on islands 3. Sheep reproduce, when humans need food they go to island to eat sheep 4. Those sheep have not interacted with humans 5. So, sheep, although is domesticated, those sheep are considered feral e. Look at handout attached at end of notes f. Evidence of domestication i. Archeological sites ii. The proportion of Age groups differs in human association vs. wild 1. Home cat older than feral cat 2. BUT domesticated cow is younger than wild cow since humans use them for food iii. Proportion of sexes differs in the animals associated with humans vs wild 1. Females in domestication are more than wild ones because humans value females more (for reproductive purposes) iv. Morphological changes 1. Wolf vs. pug v. Artistic representation 1. Old cave paintings – humans hunting dear but have dogs with them vi. Objects associated with husbandry vii. Animals present in geographical areas they’re not supposed to be 1. Polar bears in san diego zoo viii. Ritualize burials 1. Egypt burials with mummified cats g. Original Domestication Initiation i. Human capture ii. Animal initiated association 1. Symbiotic evolution h. Traits that favor domestication i. Groups structure 1. Group housing Jan 8 Lecture – Domestication, traits favoring, consequences of…, ancestors I. Traits that favor domestication a. Group structure i. Animals can be housed in groups ii. Hierarchy leader – follower social structure 1. Promotes stability and decreases aggressive confrontation iii. Males can be housed with females b. Sexual Behavior i. Promiscuous mating ii. Males dominant over females iii. Postural sexual signals c. Parent – young interaction i. Wide acceptance of intervention 1. Willing to tolerate a human being within vicinity of offspring d. Favorable human interaction i. Possibility for tameness ii. Little disturb by novelty (tolerance) e. OTHER i. Flexible dietary ingredients, tolerance, confinement, acceptance II. Neoteny a. Definition: retention of juvenile traits, can be mental or physical, into adulthood i. In particular, juvenile traits of the wild ancestor ii. Picking cats up by the scruff 1. In kittens, they will go limp and will withdrew its legs; adults learned this too 2. HOWEVER, a bobcat will never let you do that to it b. Evidence for neoteny accompanying domestication – Siberian fox III. Consequences of Domestication a. Neoteny b. Increase reproductive success c. Decrease in stress d. Decrease in skills essential for survival e. Increase in unfavorable genetic traits/disorders IV. Wolves ancestor of dog a. Same number of chromosomes i. Jackal and coyote also have some number HOWEVER b. Wolf and dog have same behavior compared to jackal/coyote c. Mitochondrial DNA, mother’s side d. Wide range of adaptability i. Wolf 23 subspecies e. Wolf pup development (chronologically by age) i. Emerges from den & reacts ii. Play iii. Stalking iv. Follow parent – nips heels/hunts v. Mature full predator Jan 11 Socialization and Communication I. Nature and Nurture a. Nature genetic profile behavior potentials range of possible reactions and genetically controlled b. Nurture environmental influences II. Type of behavior potentials a. Calm i. Can be a very limited behavior potential b. Unstable i. Reduced behavior potential c. Took a kitten and raised it with a mouse i. They were friends, due to the environment it allowed the cat to believe the mouse was part of its community ii. Related to tolerance of other breeds/human interaction iii. Shows modification through environment 1. Best in early years d. Mouse example i. 2 cages: 1 that has been handled by humans, the other 1 has not been handled by humans ii. Put those mice in a new novelty cages iii. Mice that have been handled: explore the cage and moved around iv. Mice that have NOT been handled: did not move, were nervous and scared e. Dog example i. If you have a puppy, introduce many type of things to them in order to help them not be as nervous 1. For example, show them the vacuum cleaner so they don’t become scared III. Socialization a. Recognizing i. Accepting individuals in social group ii. Example) Chihuahua that has been raised with cats 1. The dog did not recognize itself and was scared of the Chihuahua in the mirror 2. HOWEVER, when shown a picture of a new cat the dog did not react b. Imprinting i. Creates social attachment ii. Early on in life around 5 weeks of age, response to something new is more curious will decline as time goes on iii. SIMOTANEOUSLY, at 5 weeks of age fear begins to form c. Precocial i. Offspring born able to move, see, eat, etc. ii. Ducks, chicks iii. Easily imprinted first thing they see they think it’s their mother d. Altricial i. Offspring born naked with little senses and unable to act ii. Puppies, human babies IV. Communication a. Transmission of information that alters the receivers behavior b. Visual c. Olfactory d. Tactile e. Audible (Vocal) f. Stereotypy i. Visual communication that is easily identified and constant, or common Jan. 11 Discussion I. Operant Conditioning a. Consequences Reinforcement and Punishment b. Reinforcement i. Increase a behavior ii. Positive 1. Animal has gained something by increasing a particular behavior 2. Owner whistles bird whistles owner gives bird a treat 3. Caution 1: positive reinforcements are all relative a. Different species perceive things differently b. Depending on the state of the animal: when full, food might not be a positive reinforce 4. Caution 2: must be earned iii. Negative 1. Animal has escaped something by increasing a particular behavior 2. DOES NOT HAVE TO BE INJURIOUS 3. Ex: a. Pushing down on a dog’s rump dog sits pressure goes away b. Moving dolphins into a different tank using nets c. Seatbelt warning beeps for humans iv. Random 1. Don’t know when given treat but you know it will one day 2. Most powerful training tool 3. Ex: a. Slot machines c. Punishment i. Decreases behavior ii. Positive 1. Adding something undesirable, again, does not have to be injurious 2. Ex: a. Flicking a dog on the nose when it jumps on you iii. Negative 1. Removing something undesirable 2. Ex: a. Trainer leaving with the bucket of fish when the dolphin splashes the trainer d. Reminder i. Timing is everything 1. Reinforcement and punishment need to be administered immediately after the action – bridging stimulus (offers immediate reinforcement before the animal offers a different behavior) 2. Clicker training 3. Be mindful of what is being reinforced ii. Mix it up 1. If everything is negative, it’s not a happy place for the animal Jan 13 2016 Communication I. Communication a. Ethologists – person who studies animal behavior i. Stereotypical behavior ii. Displays – communication 1. Body language 2. Sound 3. Action 4. Example: Cat who’s making themselves big since it’s scared a. “attacker” does not know the cat is scared, only can tell it is “big” b. Cat knows it is scared 5. Example: Penguin lowering its head a. We humans may think it’s cute or harmless b. But penguins know that action is aggressive 6. Other animals that sees this “display communication” needs to know what it means a. We humans need to know what each display mean and how/why the animal is doing it 7. Example: Smiling (figure at right) a. Humans smiling: showing friendliness b. Chimpanzees smiling: showing fear c. Wolves smiling: showing aggression 8. Example: Eye contact a. Constant eye contact and moving toward the animal is considered an action that is dominant b. Visual Communication i. Evolutionarily favored “least” costly – from energetic point of view c. Olfactory Communication i. Uses odors for transmission of information ii. Pheromones 1. Chemicals used in communication 2. Can be synthesized by animals itself for communications 3. Can be a by-product or break-down product 4. Product of bacteria that live on the animal 5. Can be given throughout a large area 6. Examples: a. Used to tell members of clan b. Birds use scent as well c. Snakes lay their scent on a trail and use it to travel d. Dogs pawing after defecation spread anal scent e. Bunting marks territory iii. Scent may also tell others what age the animal is 1. So an older animal will know that the younger animal may not know what they are doing d. Tactile Communication i. Physical touch communication ii. Grooming is a prime example e. Verbal/Audible Communication i. Humans use this form of communication the best 1. Interspecific – we are talking to our animals 2. Research on how humans can communicate with other species ii. Dog translator – A JOKE, no scientific background iii. Pat Bean McConnell 1. To stimulate behavior a. Series of short, high notes rapidly repeated b. “Come, come, come, come!” to get your dog to come 2. To inhibit behavior a. Single low descending note b. “Stooop” 3. Used in all cultures in all species Jan 15 Aquaculture Guest Lecture I. Freshwater vs. Saltwater a. Fresh water i. 90% from fisheries ii. 10% from wild b. Salt water i. 10% from fishery ii. 90% from wild II. Aquaculture a. Definition: the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants i. Farming also implies individuals or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated b. Origins i. Truth is, China is the origin place for aquaculture 1. Yangtze River- for both food and aesthetics at ~6,000 – 4,000 BCE 2. Mostly connected to rice farming 3. 4. Fish is used in growing rice a. Methane is produced b. Advantages 10-20% increase in rice yields and increase in fish ii. Influenced culture 1. Carp symbolism – wealth, luck, happiness, good fortune, and prosperity c. New development of breeds i. Koi was domesticated ~200 years ago ii. Started in 1820’s to bred common carp for distinctive color patterns d. Goldfish culture i. Characteristics 1. Freshwater 2. Coldwater (68 F) 3. Herbivores 4. Non-aggressive 5. Hardy; change 25% of the water/ 1 or 2 weeks ii. Taking care of them 1. New technology for tanks a. Modern times have more highly advanced tech for fish tanks 2. Became a community tank e. Saltwater cultivation i. Nemo was first ones
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