all notes for test 1
all notes for test 1 370
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Gray on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Wyley B Shreves in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 344 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/15/16
How do we understand the history of psychology? Chapter 1 What do historians focus on? -knowledge -information that has a purpose or use -school of thought -context -social, economic, cultural -roots -easy to focus on the past 150 years -interdisciplinary schools -philosophy, physics, religion, medicine -singular individuals Themes - mind-body debate -people who believe they will get better, recover quickly -directionality -nature vs. nurture -predetermination -theorist or practitioner -what should science focus on? -who is better? 4 types of knowledge -scientific: -based on the scientific method -systematic observations and measurements -peer reviewed research -scientific knowledge is progressional -emotions -500 B.C. Democritus: atoms -1600s Descrates: animal spirits -what do we think now? We don't know - folk: -for us, often known as "pop psychology" -everyone uses folk knowledge -we all have our own theories about how people think and function -a large part of psychology is either supporting or refuting these popular fold beliefs -birds of a feather flock together -opposites attract - pop psychology -with the advent of mass communication pop psychology is more popular than ever -often have degrees -the goal is not the pursuit of knowledge but to keep things simple and sensational so they are easy to digest and reader comes back for more -on the surface, these beliefs often seem inconsequential but many people live their lives according to claims scientific knowledge disagrees with -ESP -masturbation will make you go blind or cause mental health problems -go blind if you sit close to TV - ideological -ideology = values -religion -rigid cultural norms -Pakistan and child marriages -mental health in communist Russia and the Antebllum South - legal -established by an authority -does not need to be justified like scientific knowledge -are often at odds -legal definition vs. clinical definition of insanity -every type of knowledge affects each of the others and is affected by them -Engrams in Scientology -what is a dream? -as well as being interconnected was cannot separate any form of knowledge from the time and place its held Society and psychology -we would like to think that every researcher has an unbiased pursuit of the truth -conscious and unconscious pressures make that goal realistic -as historians we need to take into account societal factors in how our science developed -societal pressures - resources: -academic pursuits require facilities and money, yet are commonly not profitable in and of themselves -what happens when you are dependent on a sponsor or patron? -publish or perish! - social climate: -Zeitgeist: prevalent social climate -communist Russia vs. US on human sexuality -Alfred Kinsey, masters and Johnson -knowledge of women's reproductive health improved dramatically -science can affect the zeitgeist and vice Versa -most researchers credit a more liberal social climate with the removal of homosexuality from DSM..... In 1973 -it was psychological research that broke down perceptions of "other" races in Europe at the turn of the last century - academic tradition -collection of scholars sharing similar views on what and how we should conduct research -advisor relationship -not a negative in and of itself, but promotes a. Ore dogmatic approach to science What is histiography ? - the method by which we obtain and disseminate historical knowledge - how do we decide who to remember and who gets forgotten? -peer review -1991 survey of all the heads of APA -mostly agreement on who the ten most influential are -textbook samples -the same names appear in most introductory textbooks -never perfect -only one psychologists has ever won noble prize -personal feuds and jealousies can hurt a researchers profile - Frued was famous for this - controversy -simply put: all publicity is good publicity -John Watson (behaviorism) was forced to resign after having an affair with a student - milgrams pain experiment -William James and pacifism -there are always exceptions to the rule -Wundt -founder of experimental psychology -huge supporter of Germany in WW1 - social status: -having a name support you helps your research get disseminated further -King, sultan or Harvard -psychology has luckily been trending to more of a meritocracy - societal biases -wide spread gender bias throughout psychology's history -ethnocentrism -racism -language barrier -east- west bias -South Korea How we got here? -pitfalls to avoid: -don't oversimplify -labels are useful, but we should be wary -history of fragmentation -we have seen a move towards standardization across traditions and fields -universal language increases applicability -multi-method approach -mass media Chapter 2 Psychology in the ancient world Comparing then to now -no one thought of themselves as psychologists -scholars, artists, poets, priests, philosophers, Kings Where do we start? -as historians we need some form of record -civilization begins with agriculture -Mesopotamia -Egypt -subjective culture: connection between oneself and the physical and social environment -religion, art, education, science, values Mesopotamia -they left us evidence -Hammurabi's code -first codified legal knowledge -gods and spirituality interacted daily -dreams could have specific meanings Egypt -religion was also extremely important -folk knowledge begins to enter society -"particular prescriptions" -"book of instruction" -what is the best way to teach students Commonalities -saw a split between the material and the divine -based their knowledge on observation and extrapolation Greek: the first divisions -why do know so much about the Greeks? -wrote down their theories -their thoughts were valued even when conquered -materialism: everything mental can be explained in physical terms via matter -idealism: there is a divine soul that is separate from the body -caveat on the word "soul" -soul is conscienceness and being self aware -soul: materialist - Democritis, Milesians, Stoics -atomism: all matter is made of particles so tiny they are invisible -even the soul could be worked down into these atoms -different concentrations of these atoms produced different psychological states -most basic forms of matter -soul: idealism -Plato -described the soul and being "trapped" by the body, thus our perceptions are skewed -first instance of sensation and perception -Plato believed that there were different qualities of souls -rational , affective, desirous -Aristotle -combined Plato and materialism -the soul and body coexisted, but were different -more fluid than Plato on how souls act -cognition -epistemology: philosophy of knowledge -materialist: -emanation theory: sensation is created by atoms being discharged -atoms themselves do not hold these properties -idealists: -opinions: beliefs developed through our sensation -universal truths: could be discovered only by the soul -Aristotle -our sensation doesn't come from atoms but by a form of the object in its correct environment -ear needs air, sight needs light (fire) -first to name five basic senses -emotion -all of the Greek schools viewed emotions as " interlopers" that should be controlled -stoic actually means "porch" -viewed emotions and desires as one in the same -saw emotions as motivating factors -we want something -materialist: -happy emotions were soft, round atoms -negative emotions were like Sandburg -idealist -emotions were a reflection of the bodies physical states and desires and came from the soul -motivation -Epicurus (materialist): based motivation on desire -natural -natural but unnecessary -vain -the goal should be to avoid pain, not seek pleasure -therapy -negative emotions can be supplanted by positive emoti no -incorrect interpretations of the past and unreasonable expectations of the future -resembles modern cognitive therapies -Butler, 2008 -stoics -the world is usually beyond our control -a happy, wise person is one who can adapt to that -Modern coping strategies -Snyder, 1999 -biological basis -Egypt and Mesopotamia -the heart was the center of the soul (cognition) - Herophilus (Alexandria) -Determined the brain was the central organ, detailed the nervous system - Erasistratus -Motor and sensory neurons -Parts of the human vs. animals -abnormal psychology -hard not to oversimplify -Normal moods result from sources -Fluctuations in body fluids were thought to cause mood problems -Some are more predisposed than others - four humors: a perfect balance of blood, bile and phlegm -The Greeks, at least in mythology, believed in insanity defense -Herculean legends 1/28/2015 -India -the birth of civilization -religion played an important part in shaping the culture -Indian philosophy is concerned with the individual -Hinduism -Vedas 1500 B.C.E: a bible you could never read -upanishads: expanded teaching of the Vedas -cliff notes -central tenants -dharma: universal laws -karma: universes balance thought cause and effect -life is an eternal circle -androcentrism: males and masculinity form the center of the narrative -missing the female viewpoint -castes -the idea of karma supported the idea of castes -Brahmins -Kshatriyas - Vaishyas - Shudras -Untouchables = really bad karma -cognition -different processes - sravana: hearing - manana: reflecting - nididhyasana: meditating -We don't perceive reality -Transcendence: knowledge beyond empirical experience -Yoga -soul -an infinite cycle of reincarnation based on your karma -Buddhism -4 truths -Life is suffering -Physical or psychological -Suffering comes from ignorance -We can escape the suffering -Seek to reduced suffering in oneself and in other - we suffer because we don't understand the meaning of life -The middle way - Ascetism: abstinence from all worldly pleasures -We should not self indulge nor self punish -The soul -When the body dies the soul lives on and is born again -This creates a new self -What is the self? -Nirvana: perfect and profound peace and enlightenment -The self -Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do -Indian philosophy -human behavior -What made us good or bad -The self -Internalizing our internal thoughts -Emotions -Morality -Why we should live moral lives -China -birth of civilization -religion played an important part in shaping the culture -Confucius -Refused any idea of predetermination -Men could be as virtuous as they wished -Easily the most famous atheist -Effort not the destination -Morality -Confucius and his students -Mencius: humans are inherently good -Only difference between the animals - Hsun tzu: humans are inherently evil -Need education -Philosophy = law - Holistics -Holism: everything is interconnected -Concept of yin and yang -Yin: dark, soft, hidden, feminine -Yang: bright, firm, open, masculine -These balances brought about personality and human nature -Take home -Indian tradition -Cognition and it's abnormalities -Chinese tradition -Social issues -Interconnectedness of physical and spiritual processes
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