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CHM 1045 Chapter 1 notes

by: Lauren Oldham

CHM 1045 Chapter 1 notes CHM 1045

Marketplace > Florida State University > Chemistry > CHM 1045 > CHM 1045 Chapter 1 notes
Lauren Oldham
Gen Chemistry 1
Kenneth Goldsby

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About this Document

These notes cover all of Chapter 1 as went over in class
Gen Chemistry 1
Kenneth Goldsby
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Oldham on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 1045 at Florida State University taught by Kenneth Goldsby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Gen Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 01/15/16
CHAPTER 1 What is Chemistry Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition structure properties and changes of matter Wikipedia de nition 0 Interaction of atoms called elements to form compounds 0 What are elements Elements are building blocks l made up of electrons protons neutrons 0 Putting elements together makes compounds l and compounds do things 0 Chemical and physical changes that occur to matter 0 The movement of atoms is a change of matter atoms are the reason for our ability to live They make different movements and interactions Chemistry probes the fundamental units of matter in order to understand how and why they are what they are We will learn about and use the SI unit international system of units Chemists always ask questions to nd answers 5 divisions of chemistry Analyticalconcerned with the studies qualitative and quantitative aspects of matter Biochemistry concerned with living systems lnorganic properties and reactions of compounds that contain a carbon skeleton Organic study of all substances that are not organic deals with the rst two rows of the periodic table Physical concerned with the physical aspect such as heat transfer of chemical change crosses with physics Chemistry seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules Atoms l Molecules gt Electrons make bonds electrons like to spread out gt Bonds make molecules gt Bonds make life ATP is used to break bonds ATP is the energy required for chemical changes Atoms gt Are submicroscopic particles and are building blocks of all matter Molecules gt Two or more atoms attached together these attachments are called bonds Bonding Valence electrons outermost electrons octet rule Ions gt Cations loses electron gt Anions gains electron Ionic bonds are electrostatic give and take electrons Covalent bonds sharing of electrons between two elements however they aren t always shared equally one atom is typically more reactive than the other Classi cation of matter Matter Mixture made up of multiple types of particles different samples will show different characteristics gt Homogeneous mixture mixture of compounds mixture of elements that appear to be one substance l compound dissolved in water All portions of that sample will have the same composition and characteristics Example ethanol water gt Heterogeneous mixture mixture of compounds and elements which can be noticed at glance of substance Each portion of the sample will have a different composition as well as different properties Example oil and water 0 Pure substance made up of one type of particle all samples have the same characteristics gt Elements made of one type of atom they combine together to make compounds gt Compound made of one type of molecule or a group of ions molecules contain 2 or more different types of atoms 0 Compounds that aren t neutral are really reactive l example sunburns Physical States of Matter Liquid Solid Gas State Shape Volume Compress Flow Solid Fixed Fixed No No Liquid Inde nite Fixed No Yes Gas Inde nite Inde nite Yes Yes a shape is considered inde nite when it takes the shape of the container it is placed in Gas gt gt gt Liquid gt Solid gt gt particles have complete freedom to move around bumping into one another and the container it is placed in Particles have a lot of extra space between one another therefore it is easy to compress a gas into a smaller space Gases are easily expandable because the particles are always moving Particles in liquids are closely packed together but have limited ability to move However the tight packing causes liquids to be incompressible The ability to move allows liquids to take the shape of their container and to ow Have no ability to expand Particles are packed close together and in a xed position they don t have ability to move but do occasionally vibrate The solid can not be compressed the maintain their xed shape and volume when placed in a container Changes in Matter gt gt gt Physical change the change in the state of matter Examples melting freezing evaporation condensation sublimation dissolution Chemical change fundamental change to the composition of a substance breaking of bonds Examples combustion demo re and the balloon decomposition synthesis fermentation corrosion oxidation losing electrons reduction gaining electrons Pigments and paints are examples of chemical reactions Chemists are thought of as quotart restorersquot Concept Review Chemistry is regarded as a central science Chemistry is essential in understanding the various aspects of chemical and physical changes to matter It is essential in understanding natural and unnatural processes of nature Chemistry is all about molecules Patterns in names formula and properties molecular formula structural formula ball and stick space lling Molecular Formula actual atoms in a molecule Empirical Formula minimum atomic content Structural connectivity Ball and Stick shape and size Space lling overall shape and electron distribution gt For example Glucose and Fructose have the same molecular formula however they have different structures which causes them to have a different taste Important Concepts to know gtScienti c method gtUnits gtSigni cant Figures gt Dimensional Analysis unit conversions Scienti c Method quotfortune tellingquot gt An approach to interpreting qualitative and quantitative data to provide a means to predict the outcome of an experiment gt We have to be careful because it is easy to over predict 1 Hypothesis a tentative interpretation or explanation for a single or small number of observations Falsi able con rmed or refuted by other observations Tested by experiments validated or invalidated 2 When similar observations are consistently made it can lead to a scienti c law gt A statement of a behavior that is always observed gt Summarizes past observations and predicts future ones gt Law of conservation of mass 3 A theory is a general explanation for the manifestation and behavior of all nature Extensive and Intensive prooerties gt Mass and volume are extensive properties The value depends on the quantity of matter additive gt Temperature and density are intensive properties Value independent of the quantity of matter not additive The Standard Units Quantity Unit Symbol Mass Kilogram Kg Time Second S Temperature Kelvin K KDegrees C 27315 Degrees CDegrees F 3259 Density solidsgtliquidsgtgtgtgases Densitymassvolume Solidsgcmquot3 Liquids gmL Gases gL VVVVVVV Element speci c Use in conversions Volume density mass Massdensity volume Liquids tend to be more dense than gases High density oat low density sink Except ice ice is less dense than water For equal volumes denser objects have larger masses but for equal masses the denser object has a smaller mass Heating an object causes it to expand density changes with temperature Signi cant Figures gt Multiply or dividing l sig g of the answer must be the same number of sig gs of the term with the lowest number of sig gs in the equation Add or subtracting lthe nal answer must be rounded off so that it contains the same number of decimal places as the one with the least decimal places 1al nonzero digits are signi cant 2 Interior zeros are signi cant 3 Leading zeros are not signi cant 4 Trailing zeros may or may not be signi cant after a decimal place they are signi cant Zeros at the end of a number without a written decimal point should be avoided by using scienti c notation When writing decimals ALWAYS make sure to put a 0 in front of the decimal or it will be marked incorrect Example 008206 Frequently will see a decimal following a number even if there are no numbers after the decimal It indicates that all numbers are signi cant Example 2400 Dimensional Analvsis gt Using units as a guide to problem solving gt Always write every number with its associated unit gt Arrange conversion factors so given units cancel gt Given unit x desired unit given unit desired unit Random errors statistical errornoise 1 Values have equal chances of being high or low 2 May be minimized by taking the average of several measurements of the same kind Systematic errors 1 Errors due to faulty instrument 2 Reading is either higher or lower than the correct value by a xed value 3 Weighing by differences can eliminate systematic errors of the faulty instruments Accuracy and Precision measurements Accuracy the agreement of an experimental value with the true or accepted value Precision l the reproducibility of measurements of the same type


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