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BIOL 2130

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by: Meghana Reddy
Meghana Reddy
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Study Questions : Chapter 12 Patterns of Inheritance.
BIOL 2130 - 004
Class Notes




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"If Meghana isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!"
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghana Reddy on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2130 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr.Benedetto in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 333 views. For similar materials see BIOL 2130 - 004 in Biology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Chapter 12 Patterns of Inheritance Study Questions     1. Describe the early viewpoints on inheritance.  Before the 20​ th century, these two concepts provided the basis for most  thinking of heredity:  ∙  Heredity occurs within species.  ∙  Traits are transmitted directly from parents to offspring.  2. Look up “Blending Model” of inheritance and “Particulate Model”  of inheritance. Compare these two.  ∙  Blending Model: When these viewpoints were taken together, it  led to a view of inheritance as resulting from a blending of traits within  fixed unchanged species. According to this hypothesis, if a red flowered  plant was crossed with a white flowered plant, it would produce  offspring that are white colored flowers (an intermediate between the  two).  ∙  Particulate Model: Characteristics can be passed from generation  to generation through “discrete particles” (genes). According to this  theory, if a purpled colored flowering plant were to be crossed with a  white colored flowering plant, an offspring of either of the color would  be produced and not an intermediate of the two. This is the difference  between the two models of inheritance.  3. Which model did Mendel’s work support?  ∙  Mendel’s work supported the “particulate model” of inheritance  since he worked with each trait as related to a particular gene.  4. What does “true breeding” mean?  Offsprings that are produced from self­fertilization that remains uniform  in its genetic constitution, from one generation to the next.  5. What would have happened if Mendel did not use true­breeding  strains?  He would not be able to tell the recessive alleles that would show up in  the F2 progeny. Since the F1 generation would have showed the  dominant trait regardless, the only way to show the recessive alleles  carry to the F2 is to have true breeding parents.  6. What is a monohybrid cross? Give an example. What is a dihybrid  cross? Give an example.  ∙  Monohybrid cross – Mating between two individuals with different  alleles at one genetic locus of interest.  ∙  Example: Rr × Rr: Heterozygous dominant round seeds.  ∙  Dihybrid cross – Cross between two different lines (varieties,  strains) that differ in two observed traits.  ∙  Example: RrYy × RrYy: Heterozygous dominant round, yellow  seeds.  7. Define the nomenclature “P”, “F1”, and “F2”. Explain their use in  understanding inheritance.  The parent plants in the experiments are referred to as the “P”  generation. The offspring of the “P” generation are called the “F1”  (filial) generation and the offspring of “F1” generation are called “F2”  generation.  8. How do the terms gene, allele, homozygous, and heterozygous  relate to the principle of segregation?  Genes: Located on the chromosome and consist of DNA.  Allele: Alternative forms of genes.  Homozygous: Two alleles representing identical traits.  Heterozygous: Two alleles with different traits.  The principle of segregation: When Mendel crossed two heterozygous  pea plants; he discovered that the traits in the offspring of his crosses did  not always match the traits in the parental plants. This meant that the  pair of alleles encoding the traits in each parental plant had separated or  segregated from one another during the formation of the gametes. From  this data Mendel formulated the Principle of segregation.  9. In a monohybrid cross, how do the events of meiosis explain  Mendel’s law?  The segregation of Chromosomes in Anaphase I of meiosis explains  Mendel’s observation that each parent gives one allele for each trait at  random to each offspring, regardless of whether the allele is expressed.  10.       What is a pedigree? Describe the relationships that pedigree  indicates.  A pedigree is a chart of a person’s ancestors that is used to analyze  genetic inheritance of certain traits ­ especially diseases.    Female Unaffected           ⬤Female Affected           ⬜Male Unaffected           ⬛Male Affected  Each generation is labeled with a roman numeral.  Siblings are placed in birth order from left to right.  11.       Explain the principle of independent assortment using your  own words.  During gamete formation, the segregation of alleles of one allelic pair is  independent of the segregation of the alleles of another allelic pair.  12.       In a dihybrid cross, how does meiosis explain Mendel’s second  law?  The law of Independent assortment reflects that each homologous pair of  chromosomes aligns independently of other chromosomes during  Metaphase I of meiosis.  13.       Use your own words to explain what a testcross is and how it is  useful.  A testcross is a mating between a homozygous recessive individual and  an individual of unknown genotype. The genotype of the unknown  parent can be deduced from the ratio of phenotypes in the F1 generation.     14.       Distinguish between the different manners of inheritance in the  table below by giving a description of the inheritance and an example:        Form of Inheritance  Description  Example  Polygenic  A trait that is  Height, skin color,  controlled by many  hair, eye color.  genes.  Codominance  Produces phenotypes  Roam fur in cattle.  that are intermediate  between or the  combination of two  traits.  Incomplete  The appearance in a  Pink Roses  dominance  Heterozygote of a trait  that is intermediate  between either of the  traits.  Multiple Alleles  Three or more forms  ABO system of blood  of a gene that can  groups.  occupy the same  locus. Only two can  be present in a single  organism.  Pleiotropy  Occurs when one  Phenylketonuria.  gene influences two  or more seemingly  phenotypic traits.  Epistasis  Phenomenon that  The gene for total  consists of the effect  baldness is epistasis to  of one gene being  those for blond hair or  dependent on the  red hair.  presence of one or  more ‘modifier  genes’.     


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