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Geology Chapter 1 Notes

by: Josue Notetaker

Geology Chapter 1 Notes GEOL 1001A

Josue Notetaker

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About this Document

This covers everything on chapter 1. It is a completed fill in the blank copy of his powerpoint presentation.
General Geology Lecture
Michael Fix
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josue Notetaker on Friday January 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1001A at University of Missouri - St. Louis taught by Michael Fix in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Geology Lecture in Geology at University of Missouri - St. Louis.


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Date Created: 01/15/16
Geology Introduction • Geology - What is It? • Scientific study of theEarth and its major systems • Subdivisions: • Physical Geology: Study of the Earth’s composition , and the processes that shape it. • Historical Geology: Study of Earth’shistory and history of life Geology - Why Study It? • Acquiring Knowledge Needed to: • Obtain natural resources . • Assess and avoid natural disasters . • Prevent or correct enviornmental damage. • Expanded Awareness of: • How beautiful and complex Earth is. • How much our survival depends upon understanding how Earth works. The Scientific Method • A systematic, logical , way of studying how nature works. • data is gathered which poses questions. • Hypothesis: • An attempt to explain the data • Often, more than one is propsed • tests are devised to find which, if any are • Theory: a hypothesis that has tested true Has a high probability of being valid Earth’s Major Components • Geosphere: From the Earth’s surface to its center . • Subdivisions: • Crust: outermost and thinnest part of Earth. Two types exist. • Continental: thicker , variable thickness , and granitic average composition. • Oceanic: thinner , more uniform in thickness, and basaltic composition. • Mantle: Most of Earth’s volume and mass . denser rock than crust. • Core: molten outer core, and solid inner core. 2 and nickel composition. • Hydrosphere: All of Earth’s water . • 97% is in the oceans • Atmosphere: gaseous envelope surrounding Earth. • 78% nitrogen , 21% oxygen , and 1% , and others. • Biosphere: All living things on Earth. Dynamic Relationship Between Components • The Earth’s major components exist in “ dynamic equilibrium ” (changing balance ). • A change in any one results in a change in all the others. • Not necessarily of the same magnitude Major Features of Earth’s Surface • Continental Features: • Mountain range • Plains: flat , gently slope away from mountains. • Plateaus: Flat upland region. • Basins: Flat lowland region. • Deserts: Very dry climate region. • Lakes • Streams • Glaciers and ice sheets • Continental Shelves ( below sea level): Shallow sea. • Continental Slopes ( below sea level): steeper slope that connects shallow sea to deep sea • Ocean Basin Features: • Oceanic Ridges: Undersea mountain range extending through all the oceans. • Transform Faults: Fractures that cut across a ridge at 90° shifting it right or left. • Abyssal Plains: flat parts of deep ocean. • Deep Ocean Trenches: trough-like depressions that are the deepest parts of the oceans. • Volcanic Island Arcs: curving chains of volcanic islands that are next to a trench. 3 The Four Cornerstones of Geology • Geologic Time: vast spans of time ranging from thousands to billions of years. • Implications: • Most of Earth’s features can be explained by observable processes acting over geologic time spans according to natural laws. Often called “the principle of uniformitarianism.” “The present is the key to the past.” • The Rock Cycle: Continual transformation of rocks from one type to another. • Caused by internal (underground) and external (surface) processes. • Three major rock types: • Igneous: formed when melted rock (magma) cools and solidifies. • Sedimentary: formed when rocks weather and erode into sediment that becomes new rock. •Metamorphic: formed when rocks recrystallize without melting, due to heat and pressure deep underground. • Recycled Materials: the substance of any rock has existed as other rocks in the past. •The Hydrologic Cycle: Continuous transfer of water from one repository to another. For example, from sea to the air, then from the air to the land, and then back to the sea. • Primary Water Source = oceans. • Primary Energy Source = sun. • Cycle of evaporation, Condensation, precipitation, Infiltration and runoff. •Effect on Earth’s Surface: Most erosion, and most sediment and sedimentary rock is due to the water cycle. • Plate Tectonics: motion and interaction of rigid, interlocking plate-like segments of Earth. • Plate interaction causes deformation (bending and breaking). • This results in tectonic (Earth-building) activity such as: • Earthquakes • volcanism • Mountain formation (orogenesis). 4 Components of Plate Tectonics • Lithosphere: • Crust + uppermost mantle joined as a single rigid unit. • Average thickness = 100 km (100 mi). • This is what “plates” are made of. • Asthenosphere: • Highly deformable (plastic like material) upper mantle. • Allows plates to move . Types of Plate Boundaries • Divergent: • Two plates pull and move away from one another. • As they diverge, magma intrudes into cracks and forms new lithosphere • Almost all occur along the central part (axis) of oceanic • Earthquakes and volcanic activity occur here. • Convergent: • Two plates collide and one is forced down under the other into the mantle where it is “recycled.” • This causes quakes and violent volcanic activity. • Deep ocean trenches mark where one plate slips under the other. • Volcanic island arcs and continental volcanic arcs form next them. • When two continental plates collide, a great mountain range is formed. • Transform: • Two plates are sliding past one another along a transform fault. • There is neither creation nor destruction of lithosphere. • Quakes and deformation occur. • Features on opposite sides of the boundary are offset.


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