Exam 1 Set 1
Exam 1 Set 1 Bio 1144
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murry on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
Biology II Notes Week 1 Taxonomy – the study of classifstng and grouping organisms o Aristotle was one of the 1 to begin this practice. He classified plants based solely on how they looked. Hierarchical groups – different levels of classification groups o Each level is called a taxon o Carolus Linnaeus, in 1753, began hierarchical groups for plants. He proposed the Binomial System of Nomenclature: a 2 word scientific name in latin (a noun followed by an adjective that describes the noun) o This is an “artificial” way of naming things. In other words, only humans benefit from giving things an official name. This makes it easier to communicate to other people all over the world. The 5 Kingdom Concept: 1. Monera 2. Protista 3. Fungi 4. Plantae 5. Animalia Taxon Hierarchy Example: Gray Wolf o Kingdom Animalia o Phylum Chordata o Class Mammalia o Order Carnivora o Familly Canidae o Genus Canis o Species Canis lupus (Wolf gray) Systematics – the study of biological diversity and evolutionary relationships o How close are we related? o Determined through DNA and genetics as well as morphology and taxonomy o Phylogenetic Tree 1. Kingdom Monera Prokaryotic cells Include 2 domains: Archaea and Bacteria Lack nucleus, membranebound organelles, and sexual reproduction (Some scientists debate if they should be considered a special because of their lack of sexual reproduction.) Most abundant group in the world Fossils are 3.5 billions years old o Archaea Have an “almost” nucleus Similar to cytoplasm in Eukaryotes Specialized membranes Tend to populate “unlivable” areas and harsh environments such as volcanoes o Bacteria 1. Ptroteobacteria (true bacteria) 2. Cyanobacteria (bluegreens) a. Photosynthetic b. Produce their own food c. Transforms nitrogen for plant usage 2. Kingdom Protista Earliest known cells Most are microscopic Most prefer a moist environment Many separate groups of DNA (comprised of anything that doesn’t fit into any other group) o Algae: “plant like” 10 groups Autotrophic – “self feeding” Photosynthetic (although some ingest their food) Range from unicellular to multicellular o Protozoans: “animal like” Heterotrophic – “ingest feeding” Range from unicellular to multicellular o Fungallike Protists Saprotrophic – “absorb feeding” Multicellular 3. Kingdom Fungi Largest organism thought to be some superior organism in the ground covering a 2,000 acre area Grow in soil mostly Conspicuous portion is mushroom, mold, leaf, yeast, etc. but entire organism largely unseen Recyclers; breaks down dead organisms; agents of decay Heterotrophic, Saprotrophic (secrete enzymes and reabsorb nutrients), or Parasitic ingesters Body called the mycelium and is composed to filaments “fruiting body” or reproductive structures arise out of the substrate (i.e. mushrooms) Reproduce through spores Rizomorphs – water transporting filaments Have a cell wall with chitin 4. Kingdom Plantae 300,000+ species Multicellular and eukaryotic Most are autotrophic Release oxygen through photosynthesis Most are terrestrial; anchored into the ground Food storage in the form of starch Photosynthetic pigments: o Chlorophylls A and B (green/yellow) and Bcarotene (orange) o Having more pigments allows plants to absorb more wavelengths of light Cell wall composed of cellulose, which is the most abundant carbohydrate Cellulose provides internal support Land plant ancestor most likely green algae Fossils date back to 400 million years before present 10 Major Group of Plants: 1. Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts: 6,500 species) 2. Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts: 100 species) 3. Phylum Bryophyta (mosses: 12,000 species) Phylums 13 collectively called Bryophytes (“mosses & allies”) because of their closely related DNA Scientist know the most about Bryophtes 4. Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes: 1,000 species) 5. Phylum Pteridophyta (ferns & allies: 12,000 species) Phylums 45 collectively called Pteridophytes (“ferns & allies”) because of closely related DNA 6. Phylum Cycadophyta (cycads: 300 species) 7. Phylum Ginkgophyta (gingko: 1 species; known as “living fossil”) 8. Phylum Gnetophyta (genetopytes: 300 species) 9. Phylum Coniferophyta (conebearingtrees: 500 species) Phylums 69 collectively called gymnosperms (“naked seed”) A lot is known about gymnosperms because they are important both economically and environmentally important. 10. Phylum Anthophyta (flower/fruitbearing: 300,000+ species) Phylum 10 referred to as angiosperms (“enclosed seeds”) Bryophytes: moss & allies o Reproduce by spores (no seeds) o Nonvascular (lack conducting tissue) o Move food slowly and transport water cell to cell o Smallest land plants (up to ½ a meter) o Needs water for reproduction (spores can’t move across dry surfaces) Pteridophytes: ferns & allies o Extensive fossil record o Conducting tissues: xylem (transports water and miners) and phloem (transports food) o Have true roots, stems, and leaves o Grow up to 10 meters o Reproduce through spores; requires water for reproduction Gymnosperms: “naked seeds” o Biggest phylum o The conebearingtrees o Smallest number of species, yet have some of the oldest living organisms (such as the Bristle Cone Pine), the largest living organisms (such as the Giant Sequoia), and the tallest living organisms (such as the Redwood) o Have vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, which are very strong (wood) o Have naked, uncovered seeds o Within seeds: Embryo Stored food Integument: protective covering o Seeds have survival value o Doesn’t need water for reproduction; pollinates instead Angiosperms: “enclosed seed” o Enclosed seeds in fruit, flowers, or some other vessel o Have vascular tissues and more advanced xylem and phloem, therefore a more efficient transportation system o Within seeds: Embryo Stored food 2 integuments (therefore has best survival value) o Only group to produce flowers in order to attract pollinators o Fruits enclose, protect, and assist with seed dispersion. (Imagine if an animal eats a fruit. The animal travels and poops out the seed somewhere else.) o Largest group; makes up 90% of the Kingdom o No water needed to reproduce 5. Kingdom Animalia Huge group for sheer number of species, most of which are insects Most complex Kingdom Genetically similar to single ancestor 35 Phylums More similarity between animal genomes than all other Kingdoms Characteristics: o Multicellular o No cell wall o Sexual reproduction: mobile, small sperm + large eggs o HOX genes – determine body axis during embryotic development o Most have nervous tissue o Cell junctions o Proteins bind cells (instead of carbohydrates) Classification and Systematics o Will be covered in next week’s notes
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