New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 1 Set 1

by: Murry

Exam 1 Set 1 Bio 1144

GPA 3.68
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Biology II

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Biology II notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These are all the notes that were covered during the first week of school. We left off in the middle of Kingdom Animalia, and I will include the entire Kingdom in next week's notes. Important terms...
Biology II
Thomas Holder
Class Notes
Biology, kingdom, Classification, systematics, animalia, fungi, taxonomy, hierarchical




Popular in Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murry on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.


Reviews for Exam 1 Set 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/16/16
Biology II Notes Week 1  Taxonomy – the study of classifstng and grouping organisms o Aristotle was one of the 1  to begin this practice. He classified plants  based solely on how they looked.   Hierarchical groups – different levels of classification groups o Each level is called a taxon o Carolus Linnaeus, in 1753, began hierarchical groups for plants. He  proposed the Binomial System of Nomenclature: a 2 word scientific name  in latin (a noun followed by an adjective that describes the noun) o This is an “artificial” way of naming things. In other words, only humans  benefit from giving things an official name. This makes it easier to  communicate to other people all over the world.   The 5 Kingdom Concept: 1. Monera 2. Protista 3. Fungi 4. Plantae 5. Animalia  Taxon Hierarchy Example: Gray Wolf o Kingdom Animalia o Phylum Chordata o Class Mammalia o Order Carnivora o Familly Canidae o Genus Canis o Species Canis lupus (Wolf gray)  Systematics – the study of biological diversity and evolutionary relationships  o How close are we related? o Determined through DNA and genetics as well as morphology and  taxonomy o Phylogenetic Tree 1. Kingdom Monera  Prokaryotic cells  Include 2 domains: Archaea and Bacteria  Lack nucleus, membrane­bound organelles, and sexual reproduction (Some  scientists debate if they should be considered a special because of their lack of sexual reproduction.)  Most abundant group in the world  Fossils are 3.5 billions years old o Archaea  Have an “almost” nucleus  Similar to cytoplasm in Eukaryotes  Specialized membranes  Tend to populate “unlivable” areas and harsh environments  such as volcanoes o Bacteria 1. Ptroteobacteria (true bacteria) 2. Cyanobacteria (blue­greens) a. Photosynthetic b. Produce their own food c. Transforms nitrogen for plant usage 2. Kingdom Protista  Earliest known cells  Most are microscopic  Most prefer a moist environment  Many separate groups of DNA (comprised of anything that doesn’t fit into any other group) o Algae: “plant like”  10 groups  Autotrophic – “self feeding”  Photosynthetic (although some ingest their food)  Range from unicellular to multicellular o Protozoans: “animal like”  Heterotrophic – “ingest feeding”  Range from unicellular to multicellular o Fungal­like Protists  Saprotrophic – “absorb feeding”  Multicellular  3. Kingdom Fungi   Largest organism thought to be some superior organism in the ground  covering a 2,000 acre area   Grow in soil mostly   Conspicuous portion is mushroom, mold, leaf, yeast, etc. but entire organism  largely unseen  Recyclers; breaks down dead organisms; agents of decay  Heterotrophic, Saprotrophic (secrete enzymes and reabsorb nutrients), or  Parasitic ingesters   Body called the mycelium and is composed to filaments  “fruiting body” or reproductive structures arise out of the substrate (i.e.  mushrooms)  Reproduce through spores  Rizomorphs – water transporting filaments  Have a cell wall with chitin 4. Kingdom Plantae  300,000+ species  Multicellular and eukaryotic  Most are autotrophic   Release oxygen through photosynthesis  Most are terrestrial; anchored into the ground  Food storage in the form of starch  Photosynthetic pigments: o Chlorophylls A and B (green/yellow) and B­carotene (orange) o Having more pigments allows plants to absorb more wavelengths of  light   Cell wall composed of cellulose, which is the most abundant carbohydrate  Cellulose provides internal support  Land plant ancestor most likely green algae  Fossils date back to 400 million years before present  10 Major Group of Plants: 1. Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts: 6,500 species) 2. Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts: 100 species) 3. Phylum Bryophyta (mosses: 12,000 species)  Phylums 1­3 collectively called Bryophytes (“mosses &  allies”) because of their closely related DNA  Scientist know the most about Bryophtes  4. Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes: 1,000 species) 5. Phylum Pteridophyta (ferns & allies: 12,000 species)  Phylums 4­5 collectively called Pteridophytes (“ferns &  allies”) because of closely related DNA 6. Phylum Cycadophyta (cycads: 300 species) 7. Phylum Ginkgophyta (gingko: 1 species; known as “living fossil”) 8. Phylum Gnetophyta (genetopytes: 300 species) 9. Phylum Coniferophyta (cone­bearing­trees: 500 species)  Phylums 6­9 collectively called gymnosperms (“naked  seed”)   A lot is known about gymnosperms because they are  important both economically and environmentally  important. 10. Phylum Anthophyta (flower/fruit­bearing: 300,000+ species)  Phylum 10 referred to as angiosperms (“enclosed seeds”)  Bryophytes: moss & allies o Reproduce by spores (no seeds) o Nonvascular (lack conducting tissue) o Move food slowly and transport water cell to cell o Smallest land plants (up to ½ a meter) o Needs water for reproduction (spores can’t move across dry  surfaces)  Pteridophytes: ferns & allies o Extensive fossil record o Conducting tissues: xylem (transports water and miners) and  phloem (transports food) o Have true roots, stems, and leaves o Grow up to 10 meters o Reproduce through spores; requires water for reproduction  Gymnosperms: “naked seeds” o Biggest phylum o The cone­bearing­trees o Smallest number of species, yet have some of the oldest living  organisms (such as the Bristle Cone Pine), the largest living  organisms (such as the Giant Sequoia), and the tallest living  organisms (such as the Redwood) o Have vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, which are very strong  (wood) o Have naked, uncovered seeds o Within seeds:  Embryo  Stored food  Integument: protective covering o Seeds have survival value o Doesn’t need water for reproduction; pollinates instead  Angiosperms: “enclosed seed” o Enclosed seeds in fruit, flowers, or some other vessel o Have vascular tissues and more advanced xylem and phloem, therefore a more efficient transportation system o Within seeds:  Embryo  Stored food  2 integuments (therefore has best survival value) o Only group to produce flowers in order to attract pollinators o Fruits enclose, protect, and assist with seed dispersion. (Imagine if  an animal eats a fruit. The animal travels and poops out the seed  somewhere else.)  o Largest group; makes up 90% of the Kingdom o No water needed to reproduce 5. Kingdom Animalia  Huge group for sheer number of species, most of which are insects  Most complex Kingdom  Genetically similar to single ancestor  35 Phylums  More similarity between animal genomes than all other Kingdoms  Characteristics: o Multicellular o No cell wall o Sexual reproduction: mobile, small sperm + large eggs o HOX genes – determine body axis during embryotic development o Most have nervous tissue o Cell junctions o Proteins bind cells (instead of carbohydrates)  Classification and Systematics o Will be covered in next week’s notes  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.