Week 1: Colonial Wars and the American Revolution
Week 1: Colonial Wars and the American Revolution HIST 2051-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan 1/12/16 Colonial Period and AM Revolution 1607-1763 o Involved what’s happening in Europe and how it spilled into the colonists o Colonist develop classic liner battlefield mixed with Indian guerilla style Indian tactics with European weapons Colonial Period New England Anglo-Indian Relations o 1675-35000+ settlers lived among Indians in new England o King Philip led a revolt against the English o Intercolonial Armies had to be developed to survive o With much persistence the settlers eventually overtook and destroyed the Indian to end King Philip’s war o English and American Names for wars: War of League of Augsburg (1689-1697) = King William’s War War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713) = Queen Anne’s War War of Austrian Succession (1744-1748) = King George’s War 7 Year’s War (1756-1763) = French and Indian War Starts in Colonies before Europe Colonization o French to use land for fur trapping, using Indian relations o Spanish in Americas mainly for gold, somewhat for religious converts o English making formal governments King George’s War o Local militia units (less trained, part time soldiers, stays in colony) vs. formal o 1740- Charles VI died, escalating conflict between France and England Extended to North America o Colonists & British regulars continued to experience difficulty working together Siege of Lewisburg o 1744- French attacked merchant ships in Louisburg o 1745 -Willian Pepperell le successful siege and overtook L o 1748 – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Short victory Land gained given back French and Indian War o Starts in America before Europe o Jack Green: argues this is first world war: includes 3 leading countries: control of Atlantic shipping trade and Mediterranean and control of North America o Problems: Causes AM Revolution, British promise war cost picked up by European tax payer (colony taxes not go up) not true Battles of Louisburg and Ticonderoga o L, Lake Chaplain, Ft. Duquesne o By this time Brits had taken actions to adapt to local practices Use of light infantry, scouts, camouflage, painting faces like the Native Americans did, recruiting locals for territory info Didn’t totally abandon usual tactics (bright red uniforms) o European forces not entirely averse to adaption to local conditions when necessary o Conventional European tactics were better when taking and holding Militia volunteers, kid gloves or thy would have gone home Tough time Battle of Quebec o Brit landing supposed to land below Beauport, rain made a different landing: Foulon Faced men climbing the cliffs and fighting without horses, Linked up with men at Abraham o Sept 12 th Southerland ship position to keep French occupied Artillery kept busy at ft. Levy 1800 soldiers = first wave of soldiers, used the tide to move in silently Surprise @ 4:00 am, to attack French sentinels’ first Boats pulled to far downstream o Howe climbed cliffs with men right there, put to flight the militia men, 8:00 Burton and Carlton made up rest of army o Worked within one week Summing Up o Increased tensions among Spain, France, Britain, and their colonies o Differing tactics (American wilderness v. plains of Europe) Standard: Canons in front, lines of army and infantry behind Colony: muskets on the rise, but no European training for lines, use ambushes instead, Native Americans had different concept of land ownership (Not interested in protected titled land) Native Americans didn’t make their own firearms, traded for them and for ammunition, cut off of trade = lack of ammunition, good trade with at least one white community, pitched one group against the other (Now and in Civil War) o Militia vs. regular standing army (fighting and working together) o Long vs. short enlistments o Rifle vs. Musket R: spiraling in barrel (keeps bullet going straight), faster bullet over greatest distance (Not really popular till civil war) M: no rifling, not as accurate o When Armada defeated, Spanish on Decline Still controlled the Caribbean and Florida Without the once powerful navy, would have difficulty holding it o First pangs of globalization American Revolution King William’s War + Queen Anne’s War + King George’s War o Militia didn’t want to stay to train, couldn’t count on uniformity between colonies, commanders elected by community (little or no military training). Combat: refused to continue battle beyond point of own colony, wouldn’t cooperate with each other started to fix this with common enemy of British reign The real enemy of the truth isn’t the lie, it’s the myth Regulars: o French and Indian War o 7 Years’ War Fought over European reasons: control of the Atlantic o Great War for Empire (1754-1763) Between French and the Indians and the British European literature from this time is racial (Germanic Race, Jewish Race) instead of ethnical During this time Washington is LTC G. (1754), failed at getting back land, gained valuable experience during French and Indian War with combat and how to deal with militia men Portugal never becomes big factor in North America, but big in South America to this day 1/14/16 New Kinds of Allies / New Kinds of Tactics o Thousands of Native American communities, constantly shifting sides o Robert Rogers: organized first ranger unit to fight guerrilla warfare (1755) o Introduction of Kentucky rifle: rifled barrel made for better accuracy, greater range Muskets had to fire in volley b/c they couldn’t truly aim at anybody (smooth barrel) – bound to hit something/somebody o Opposing Views: What one thought of the other: Brit: militia indiscipline, colonies can’t cooperate, apathy, constraints on militia AO, volunteer mentality (wasn’t willing to take an order and participate unless it was for his own neighborhood, would leave and go home), localism, greed, lack of appreciation for the big picture Colonial: arbitrary (harsh) discipline (navy: cat of nine tails), discrimination of officers, fatigue duties (dig latrines, feed horses), contemptuous manner, press gangs (made drunk men accept the king’s shilling, thus signing up for service) (accused crews of merchant ships of deserting, and pressed into navy service), quartering troops (forced housing of Regulars army at colonist expense) Social gap: European officer class was a social distinction, wealthy families could purchase commission (usually the navy, service branch for gentlemen; army = riffraff) English also bestow titles (Colonel Lord So-and-So, not in the colonies) If the Revolution generals had received titles in England’s wars, could the revolution have been avoided? Treaty of Paris o Ends the fighting, British title to all lands east of Mississippi, including Canada and Florida o British national debt doubled (145 million pounds) Who pays? Colonists told that mainland would pick up the tab and the colonist pay with their service Colonist taxes have to be repealed by parliament to maintain control of colonists, in exchange for recognition that parliament has power to make rules in Colonies, leads to more taxes Jack Green: every colonial society goes through 3 stages: starts as societal simplification (matters of survival), moves into stage of social elaboration (start governments, church), society reaches replication (replicate what we had in old country, revolution becomes inevitable, pick and choose systems from home) o Role of Colonies within dying mercantilism system o Proclamation line of 1763: no settlement west of line Territory reserved for Native Americans, but it doesn’t work Costs of War o Not just expenses of war, future expenses such as proclamation line that has to be patrolled and protected o New territory to be controlled (Regular army mission: defense or occupation) o Colonists Pay for: volunteers/militia, casualties, disabled, dislocated, bankruptcies o “Imagine Communities” -Anderson: natural boundaries, what is it that makes a countryman? Colonist don’t think of themselves as English men, they think of themselves as Virginians, etc. Tension lead to thoughts of “Americans” o Sons of Liberty to fight for fair representation, Continental congress 1 colonial government, colonist continued to resist being controlled Colonial Discontent o Proclamation line o Sugar Act 1764 o Stamp Act 1765 o Quartering act – legitimized housing troops o Boston massacre 1770 Young troops stationed and armed in civilian place not being supervised well Soldiers put on trial and defended by John Adams o Intolerable acts 1774 – Townshend revenue acts – Charles Townshend chancellor exchecker (secretary of treasurer, second most important to prime minister) moved to prime minister, founds revenue acts, doesn’t go over well in colonies, leads to Boston Tea Party (colonists poorly disguised as Indians threw tea into the harbor, not the only tea party, but the most famous) Patriots swept up the deck after they were done o Tea Act – monopoly with East India trading company Growing tensions o Proclamation Line: offended NA in some areas, Pontiac lead destruction of several forts in 1963 and 1964 o March on Lexington and Concord April 1775 – Brits to break up and confiscate colonists stocking up on weaponry, leads to war Insurgency, revolution, civil war? o Insurgency: a struggle between a non-ruling and ruling authorities in which the non-ruling group concisely uses political resources and violence to destroy, reformulate, or sustain the basis of legitimacy Revamping of society o Revolution: An abrupt overthrow or seizure of power brought about from within a system; activities directed toward affecting basic changes in the socioeconomic structure, as of a cultural or minority segment of population o Civil: war between factions or regions of a single nation Patriots (supported revolution) (minute men, sons of liberty; made sure people in region fully supported the revolution), loyalists (wanted colonies to be ruled by England), fence sitters – even spread in the colonies The American Insurgency o Specific grievances: taxes, attempts by British to break up local governments (disbanded, reconvened in bar across the street) o The Nature of Insurgency (See PWPT Chart) – elements of a revolution Power of Resistance, “P” o P = means available x strength of will Galula’s Prerequisites for insurgency as applied to England’s 13 colonies o A cause Economic freedom, political freedom, sociology (are we now a distinctive group) Government administration weaknesses Who rules at home, where s=does sovereignty rest Geographic environment Long coastline, fall line close to the coast, 3,000 miles between England and colonies, Appalachian Mountains (barrier to more Indians) Weakness of counterinsurgency Available outside support Colonial population density o Most lived close to the coast, moving west and south the population thins out o British welcomed anybody, didn’t have to be English (Dutch, German, Scott-Irish, Scottish, English and Welsh) Lexington and Concord – “The Shot Heard ‘round the World” – April 1775 o British march out of Boston intent on confiscating weapons they hear are stocked in concord, warning to colonists due to Paul Revere (got a poem though intercepted a few times) and William Dawes (intercepted, no poem), British attacked and lucky to make it back alive, suffered several casualties Bunker (Breed’s Hill) – June 1775 o British attempted to shore up position in area, model of what not to do; American violate unity of command, violated mass, British sacrificed surprise, battle is a draw, but psychologically it is a win for Americans Insurgency: the means to an end? o What type of strategy will you follow? o What type of military? Militia, professional, what are advantages and disadvantages of your COA’s? Washington creates a blend: uses militia, tries to build a professional army using British training to compete on equal round o Waging the insurgency: American Assumptions, Strengths, weaknesses? Patriots have familiarity of the land, moral advantage (I have a stake in this, British ordered to be there) How do you define victory? What are your metrics? o British Ci: The Search for a strategy British Assumptions, Strengths, weaknesses Professional Army, have to ship in resources, don’t know the terrain, thought they could just squish the colonists (troops will be home by Christmas)
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