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PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, Week 1 notes

by: Alison Carr

PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology, Week 1 notes Psych 3110

Marketplace > Bowling Green State University > Psychlogy > Psych 3110 > PSYCH 3110 Social Psychology Week 1 notes
Alison Carr
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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures of week 1.
Social Psychology
Joshua Ricker
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3110 at Bowling Green State University taught by Joshua Ricker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 01/16/16
PSYCH 3110: Social Psychology- Spring Semester 2016 Week 1 Social psychology- the study of how people’s thoughts, the way they feel, and their behaviors are altered by whether people are around them or if they think people are around them Tenacity- convinced something is right because that is what we have known for a long time  Direct and strong  Not a good way to base your knowledge Authority- depending on other people as a supply for knowledge  Teachers, parents, brothers/sisters  They need to have credibility o Expertise o Trustworthy Reason- using an intelligent argument or logic to come to a result  You can come up with different results from the same thing you began with Empiricism- when you get information straight through observation and experience  Your experience may not be the same as someone else’s Science- how you get and evaluate empirical evidence to get an answer to a question and to test your ideas  Your idea has to be able to fail  You have to be able to disprove your idea Why do we do research?  Get more information  Validate the information we already have o Repeat and verify the research done before o Scientists should not take everything at face value; be skeptical  Basic research- systematic study directed toward greater knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena  Applied research-directly focuses on helping to solve or evaluate a specific real-world problem What do we want to gain from research?  Describe- say what you are investigating o Experimental psychology, basic research  Explain- why are the results what they are? (occur?) o Experimental psychology, basic research  Predict- when/where/how likely is this to occur? o Therapy, applied research  Control- being able to change the variable o Therapy, applied research What do we depend on? (non-research?)  Common sense o Not that common  Folk wisdom- things being passed down through tradition from generations  Others’ opinions The Scientific Method  How to ask and answer questions  Empirical question- questions that can be answered through tests  Used to find the relationships between objects (people, chemicals, etc.)  Steps: 1. ask a question 2. do background research 3. construct a hypothesis 4. test your hypothesis (experiment) 5. analyze your data and draw a conclusion 6. communicate your results (scientific publication) Making an experiment  experiment- a scientist changes one or more variable o try to control outside factors o measure how the changed variable affects responses  choose a random sample from the population  separate the participants into at least 3 groups randomly  variable- anything that can take on 2 or more values o independent variable- changing variable o dependent variable- measured variable  control group- group does not receive the treatment (gets placebo)  experimental group- receives the independent variable  observational definition- distinct definition of everything  confounding variable- any outside cause to influence the outcome o bad  mediator variable- gives the link in a sequence between the independent and dependent variable o how or how much Is happening  moderator variable- changes the strength/direction of the independent and dependent variable o explains why something is happening Validity  Internal validity- degree to which we can confidently infer that out study demonstrated that 1 variable has a causal effect on the other o Want high validity  External validity- concerns inferences about the generalizability of the findings beyond the circumstances of the present study o Being able to use then somewhere else  Construct validity- the appropriateness of inferences made on the basis of observations or measurements, specifically whether a test measures the intended construct o Did you report exactly what you found, or misinterpret them?  Face validity- concerns the degree to which the items on a measure appear to be reasonable o Are you measuring what you say you’re measuring? Pros of lab experiments: 1. Complete control 2. Easy to observe behavior 3. Measure anything you want 4. High internal validity Cons of lab experiments: 1. Not a natural setting 2. Might not feel like the real situation that is trying to be portrayed 3. People may not want to do it, lack of interest 4. Low external validity Experimental realism- the experiment has an impact on the participants and has them take the experiment seriously Mundane realism- how similar the lab is to the “real world”? Protecting your experiment  Single blind procedure- participants don’t know the hypothesis or the group they’re assigned to  Double blind procedure- neither the experimenter or the participants know who is assigned to which group  Placebo- control treatment that is given to participants that is told is the real treatment o Placebo effects behavior because they think that got the actual thing Correlational studies  Correlation- a statistical relationship between the variables o Variables are measured, not changed  Measure give as Pearson’s r o Weak = .1-.29 o Moderate = .30-.49 o Strong = .50 and up  Strong can be negative or positive  Positive correlation- both increase in the same direction  Negative correlation- one goes up, the other goes down  No correlation- one goes up, the other does whatever, no relationship The Golden Rule CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION o Just because there is a relationship, doesn’t mean they caused each other o The bidirectionality problem- did X cause Y or did Y cause X? o The 3 variable problem- could there be another variable accounting for the relationship between X and Y?


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