PSYS 371 Week 1 Notes
PSYS 371 Week 1 Notes PSYS 371
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Taylor on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 371 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Jim Rohrer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Applied Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
PSYS 371 Applied Behavior Analysis 01/19/2016 ▯ What is behavior? “Behavior is any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism.” Anything a person says or does o Pay attention to the details. Are they saying one thing, but meaning another? ▯ Behavior deficits vs. excesses What is a behavior deficit? o Not enough of the “Target Behavior” What is a behavior excess? o Too much of the “Target Behavior” o Who defines behavior as excessive or deficient? What is the reason for the excess behavior? You can’t just make a kid stop crying if they are afraid of something, you have to deal with the fear first. What are the ‘problems’ with each? Is the treatment the same? If you can do a behavior once, they can do it more than once. It may take a while, but they can get there. One pull-up can eventually turn into 20. ▯ What is Behavior Modification? You need to know these: The principles behind behavior modification: (Don’t need to memorize the words and definitions, but we do need to know the difference between them.) o 1. Strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be measured Naming the behavior that you want to change in words that can be identified and measured. Example: Kid gets in a fight, principal does not think it is a good thing, kid stood up for his classmates and himself so he thought it was a great thing. o 2. Using changes in the behavioral measure of the problem to measure effectiveness of intervention You need to know where you start, so you can measure whether the change you make is effective. o 3. Treatment techniques ALWAYS alter the environment What is environment? ▯ Environment For our purposes, environment means ANYTHING that effects that individuals behavior. It also includes things like “someone else is in the room that is making that person is nervous” or “they have to pee really bad” or “they had a fight with someone this morning so they can’t concentrate”. ▯ Historical Significance Drawing on the work of Kurt Lewin, a prominent Social Psychologist: Filed Theory (person-environment interaction effect) o You are affected by the situation and environment that you are in and vice versa…the environment and situation effects you. It is a two way street. ▯ In ABA The Environment is All-Inclusive In ABA, the environment includes everything that may influence a particular behavior: o The physical surroundings o The context of the situation o The behavior of others o The thoughts and or emotions of the individual or individuals involved in the particular behavior o “Even if someone makes a comment that an ex said three years ago that really really bothers you, it is still considered environment because it is effecting behavior in the present.” Your thought process is the real problem. o The thought process of an athlete makes a huge difference in performance. If you think you can’t do it, you probably never will because your thought process is already dooming you. o Non-athletes do this with tests in school. o Thought process is foundational to the probability of success. ▯ Environment-Behavior Interaction Think about any behavior you do o When do you perform the behavior? o Why do you perform the behavior? o To what degree does the immediate environment affect when and or why you perform that particular behavior? Why do you wear the clothes you wear? Is it weather? Are you going on a date? Is there nothing else clean? Figure out why now? Why are they getting treatment now? No person wakes up and says, “I’m a raging alcoholic and need help now” What do you do in certain situations, but not all the time and why is there a difference? Cussing like a sailor with a friend, but not at home with family. Sometimes, there is not a clear answer why you do something. ▯ Treatment techniques always alter the environment Since it is always the environment surrounding a specific behavior that leads to the performance of that behavior Then it follow that changing the environment will always change the behavior ▯ Overt Vs. Covert Behaviors Overt: Can be seen (or any senses). o Hitting o Walking o Swearing Covert: Cannot be seen. o Thinking o Plotting Can both be measured? Yes! o They need to be measured differently, but they can both be measured. ▯ Measuring overt behavior Defining the terms are key to measuring overt behavior More on this later… ▯ How might you measure a covert behavior? I can’t measure your thoughts, but you can measure your own thoughts o Example: How angry (or happy, or sad) are you? You can rate your level of anger, happiness, or sadness o Set up some kind of scale that the individual can measure their thoughts on different levels. We can use this thought process as markers so we can work on changing the behavior before it gets out of hand. From this, we can help the individual recognize certain behaviors that will eventually lead to the point of no return so they can stop them before it happens. ▯ Outcome of behavior(s) Is the “outcome” actually h=behavior? NO The kid with the green hair. His “green hair” is not his behavior, but it is an outcome of his behavior Your “A” or “F: is not your behavior, but your grade is definitely an outcome of your behavior o The behavior that leads to the outcome of the behavior is the behavior. ▯ Summary Behaviors What are they? They are generalizations th o A 4 grade LD class o Housewives of New Jersey How accurate are they? They are not necessarily accurate, but they do tend to be reliable o Accuracy vs. Reliability How do they differ from “outcome of behaviors?” o I buy into the “summarizing” via my own experience o Summary behaviors are not the same as outcome behaviors. Summary behaviors are your generalization based on your past, but outcome behaviors are different… ▯ Do Generalizations Lead to Labeling? Is labeling bad?? Yes and no o Labels are mental shortcuts; you have a notion of what is going to happen based on experience and you assume that it will follow the same path. ▯ Stimuli Stimuli stimulates o What stimulates you? What exactly does stimulation mean to you? What gets you going? This is important because we get this idea when we are working with other people that it is only one thing that stimulates the behavior; but in reality, it could be many things that stimulate that same behavior. o What is it in your immediate environment that stimulates your behavior. o What is it in your immediate environment that stimulates your behavior Note the direct relationship between the stimulant and the environment ▯ Chapter 29 ▯ Historical Perspective Sigmund Freud (psychoanalytic) Ivan Pavlov (classical) John B. Watson (behaviorism) Joseph Wolpe (desensitization) Hans Eysenck (classical/behaviorism) B. F. Skinner (operant) Albert Ellis (REBT) Beck (CBT) ▯ You will need to know some of these people for the field exam. Freud: o Like the Donald Trump of this day. Everyone knew he was crazy, but he had some things he needed to say. He didn’t say it in the best way, but he was good at getting his point across to the media of the day. o He was a medical doctor who worked with a lot of women with anxiety issues. He came up with his notion of psychoanalytic theory from this. Psychosexual terms; anal stage and so on. These terms got him in trouble a lot, so he didn’t get a lot of residence in Europe…so he came to the united states. o United states loved the notion of something new and innovated. He moved to pedal his type of psychology. People used the newspapers to spread the news about his ideas along with different fairs as well. o Most of the early psychology programs were developed around Freudian psychology because they wanted the new and improved ways of psychology. Once something starts, it is hard to change. Psychodynamic theory was founded and was the main resource. o Back in Europe, they still think he is crazy. o Behaviorism became a field of psychology to basically oppose the psychoanalytic theory. Behaviorists: Cared about your behavior in the present tense without caring about your past. Although it was the opposite of Freudian psychology, it was born because of it. Pavlov: o Russian guy with the salivating dogs experiment o Pairing behavior change with some kind of physiological response to get them to work together so it becomes an automated response. o Paid attention to desensitization o Understanding both the behavior change and the physiological change can help you understand the action Skinner: o Rats in the maze and rewarding them to see how they change according to the amount of punishment or reward they got. Ellis: o Rational Behavior Therapy o Interaction between thought process and behavior Beck: o Founder of Cognitive Behavior Therapy o Focused on depression and look at depression in relation to the physiology of depression o Notion of cognitive behavior therapy is looking at the brain, the needs, classical conditioning, thought processes, etc. ▯ Politics Psychoanalytic versus Behaviorism Europe vs USA American Psychology Behaviorism loses ▯ Traditional Applications Development disabilities Child rearing o This was the primary approach through education and special ed programs, but not psychology. ▯ Psychology and Politics are Interesting Bedfellows The age accountability (i.e. lower taxes) The emergence of ‘behaviorally-based’ program evaluations The emergence of CBT o Cognitive Behavior Therapy o The notion of behavior therapy has really taken off because it is pretty effective and measurable. You are looking at a specific behavior, all along the way being able to document the change, and then figure out what works and what doesn’t. o Psychodynamic therapy is really hard to measure even with improvement. o The age of accountability has gone way too far nowadays (ISTEP), but as professionals, it is important that we are accountable so our patients actually get better. ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ Current Applications Parenting DD Behavior Therapy CBT Self- mgt Self-improvement Gerontology Speech/language therapy Sports Community analysis Business/Marketing Politics o Assignment #1 Example: Restaurants keep the temperature in the room super cold to make sure you want to buy a large, warm meal. o Think about how each of these subsections use this approach to persuade others. ▯ Integrative Approach Biology Neurology Classical Conditioning CBT Behaviorism and Psychodynamic Theory in 2015 Behaviorism and Humanistic Theory in 2015 ▯ ▯ Assignment Review Consider the many possible applications of behavior modification, other than those used in teaching and various therapies. Your assignment is to investigate one non-traditional application of behavior modification and report your findings. Consider history, social context, “political correctness”, and perhaps ethical issues in your discussion. BTW, this is intended to be a few paragraphs/one page assignment, not a thesis. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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