POLI 110 American Government and Politics
POLI 110 American Government and Politics POLI 110
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenessa Pratt on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 110 at Brigham Young University taught by David Blyth Magleby in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see American Government and Politics in Political Science at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
January 15, 2016 TA’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org Current Events: Republican Debate Stock Market Economists will predict that if the economy is on a down slope a year before the election, the current President’s party will lose and vise versa. 13 Hours The movie that will bring down Obama and Hillary Clinton What is necessary for a Representative Government? Write a list of things you think are necessary to establish a representative government: Desire Literacy and education Freedom of press and information Great men as leaders An understanding that there will be a rule of law and the law needs to be followed Flexibility to change according to circumstances, ruled by law Draw a roadmap to democracy for a fictitious country just emerging from war of independence. Make sure to include obstacles to democracy and clearly define the democratic standards that need to be met. Democratic Standards: A “democratic standard: is a principle that a democracy should aspire to. Let’s brainstorm a list of democratic standards: Equal access One person, one vote Widespread interest Peaceful transition between leaders and power Rule of Law Protection of human rights: first amendment Guidelines for Papers: 3, 3 Page pagers total: The lowest score will be dropped. 1 inch margins Double spaced Times New Roman Deconstruct it (Make sure you understand the individual components) Points will be docked for not answering every part of the prompt. Include: A strong theses (and a short intro paragraph) Cohesive points that tie back to the thesis Direct answers to the prompt Works Cited page (free points) turabian/Chicago (APA and MLA is fine also) Please don’t: Write fluffy introductions/paragraphs Ignore the prompt Paper #1: Some things were undemocratic by design. Find and discuss them. Judges: people don’t have a direct say in who they are, but they can decide the law Human Rights: Didn’t protect those of slaves Rule of law: The Constitution created a universal law, it is the supreme law of the land Changes to the Constitution: Women’s suffrage was more democratic weakened Madison’s view to limit democracy Alcohol Prohibition strengthened Madison’s view that the government should control things. But amendment 21 repealing it brought back the choice of the people. Even then it didn’t help Madison’s view. (Point three) Changing age of voters. Engage Dahl and Madison’s views and plans for government by understanding what they are saying. Assumptions about human nature: Donald Trump is making everyone rethink what they want. Madison: don’t leave men to their own devices. Most people are flawed and so we need to insulate those flaws. Dahl: in every instance more democracy would be better, he has more confidence in human nature Women’s suffrage Electoral college Madison's view if you have a pure democracy, you will have issues eventually. you cannot trust an entire group of people to make the right decisions. The government should respond to the people, but they should not be controlled by the people. Political scientists think that democracy should exist and it will be the perfect form of government. Not required, but helpful. Structure: Current events Activity Content Exam/paper prep Extra credit participation points Midterms 36% of grade General Policies: Papers: Ask specific questions or bring us an outline. Don’t ask us to read your paper and give you a preliminary grade. 3 pages, doublespaced, Times New Roman font, 1inch margins, small headings You may ask for a regrade if you are willing to accept the second score, higher or lower. Lab: Be respectful of other students and the TA We’re not experts on the material. We try to be as informed as possible, but if we don’t know and answer, give us time to find it out and get back to you. Participate. Simply attending lab will not earn you extra credit. Office Hours: Come in with questions. If you can’t make my office hours, see if another TA’s office hours will work for you. If not, or if you have questions only I can answer, I will be happy to arrange a time to meet outside of class. January 2, 2015 REVEL quizzes are found on Learning suite and revel there is one due next class. https://console.person.com/enrollment/sbkbpq Watch Presidential Debate: January 14, 7 pm 250 SWKT Republican January 17, 7 pm 250 SWKT Democratic Write a one page paper responding to a prompt he will distribute in class. You must write the paper on both debates. Paper due: January 29, 5 PM, 745 SWKT If needed: watch independently Basic Section: 11 AM in room 240 SWKT you can go to both. The MayFlower Compact: A group of Puritans fleeing England and religion persecution: To make the process economically sound there were others with them who didn’t practice the same religion. To work out religious differences they came up with the Mayflower Compact. The freemen signed a contract which became a self government for the colonies in America. Self government radical idea at the time the idea that the people don’t need a king to govern themselves The Idea of America: Individualism Moral and political philosophy of life that emphasizes life, effort and independance. Popular Sovereignty in the grand picture the governmental authority should come out of the individuals acting freely Equality of Opportunity Regardless of race and gender, individuals have a right to participate in government. In this case property was a large part of this. Freedom of Religion The Puritans are not the last although the first seeking religious freedom. America was a place where they could escape that persecution. Economic Liberty Individuals and the country has a choice with economic opportunity. Individuals should be allowed to pursue economic interests without government supervision. A Distinctive Constitutional Democracy: Defining some key terms: Government Politics process which decisions are made Politician individual who participates in politics and government, it doesn’t have to be an elected official, appointed. Political Science The way we study politicians and politics. How do they think about things, what do they ask? The structure of government. Social Contract agreement where individuals volunteer to establish a government that will help the common interest of all. American Government The Constitution: Auxiliary precautions Outline for today: Test: Key terms and learning objectives Intellectual climate of 1787 Scientific Thought Religious Thought Political Thought Conditions at the End of the Revolution Roots of American Constitutional Experiment The constitutional Convention: Am The Roots of the American Constitutional Experiment: Colonial Beginnings The Rise of Revolutionary Fervor Toward Unity and Order People in different areas have different religions and culture influences, thus they have different views. Virginia is the most prominent. Articles of Confederation: Liken to the United Nations. One of the major problems because funds were going to colonies individual resources and not the country as a whole. The Constitutional Convention of 1787: The Delegates individuals desiring the concept of an equal country, politics. Consensus Conflict and Compromise Framers thought the constitution should embody equality of power. Believed deeply in the idea of “original sin” as fallen people we are prone to make mistakes and do bad things from time to time. Man is potentially evil. Believed the government rests on the representation of the people. Articles of Confederation: In many cases there is an incorrect representation. Fearful of passionate majorities or minorities Not a fight for quality but for liberty Articles of Confederation established a weak and unstable objective. This harmed the men which facilitated the revolution. Debt: A person could only vote if they had a small amount of property or money. State legislatures were controlled by farmers, not the upper class. They feared debt and thus cancelled closures on mortgages, etc. No uniform mechanism had been created for collecting taxes: A of C Replaced by Constitution in 1789 Maryland 1786 convention to evaluate problems. Only 5 states showed up. Decision that they would reconvene latter for the Constitutional Convention May 25 September 17. Constitutional Convention: Highlighted need for veterans Shays Rebellion hovers over their decisions Practitioners rather than philosophers Practical instrument for the needs of their time: goal Aims: Prevent majority of citizens from endangering the minority: especially in economic terms Guard central government from state legislatures Slave vs. Non slave states Conflict and Compromise: Westward expansion division was conflicting, anger and frustration ensued. Washington tells small states that if they don’t step down they will be held at the mercy of the larger states. Britain would have loved another war. Show up with a plan: the side that has a plan frames the debate Virginia Plan: Large States Plan: Legitimacy derived from citizens, based on popular representation Bicameral legislature, representation in both houses determined by population small states will be over run Executive size undetermined, elected and removable by Congress Prime Minister Judicial life tenure, able to veto state legislation Legislature can override state laws Ratification by citizens New Jersey Plan: Derived from states, based on equal votes for each state Unicameral legislature, representation equal by state More than one person, removable by state majority No federal judicial power over states Government can compel obedience to national laws Ratification by states Connecticut (Great) Compromise: Derived from citizens and the states Bicameral legislature with seats in the Senate apportioned by states and seats in the House apportioned by population Single executive elected by electoral college, not removable by state majority Judicial life tenure, able to veto state legislature in violation of constitution Constitution is the supreme law of the land Ratification by states, with process open to citizen ratification January 14, 2016 The Constitution: Argument of Dahl: people are hungry for power, ambitious. They wanted to balance out the quest for power in that there are staggered terms of office. No party can take over all at once. It is legitimate for the engineer: Madison to be worried about human nature. = Belief of Dahl and Hobbes. We have moved and empowered the public more than Madison did initially. The world has changed in the way we access the news, therefore multiple opinions can easily be expressed. We are better educated than the people back then. Reflect on Madison, Dahl and Hobbes. Read all of Federalist papers 51 and 10. Outline Continued: The central problem and it’s solution: Staggered terms of office. Difference constituencies. Separation and sharing of power Federalism Dahl would argue that as we have become more democratic the role of the President as the national spokesman has become more and more important. With the separation there is also a sharing of power which Madison intended to accomplish the same purposes. This is unique. House of Commons in England would not have done so. The President shares power with Congress. Constitution: Continuity and Change: View of the Constitution they laid out broad principles knowing that they couldn’t plan out everything that would happen. Therefore it is left to the following generations to interpret and decide based on the broad layout. They didn’t think of everything and that’s okay. Does the internet change the constitution interpretation? Checking Power with Power National Political Parties Expansion of the Electorate Doubtedly they did not plan on women ever voting. This was a change not thought of during this time. Growth of Presidential Power Nuclear weapons on Japan? Nationally making the Presidential power prominent. Judicial Review Informal Change: The Unwritten Constitution Amending the Constitution The process by which it is amended. The founders did not presume they had addressed every question. It was more important to get a country going than leave everything to open dispute. Leaving these doors still opened allows adaptation to our times. A More Democratic Constitution. More participatory. This however does not go the way Dahl thinks it should go. Ratification of the U.S. Constitution: Know the order which states ratified the Constitution and look at the ratio numbers. Delaware was first. Rhode Island Last. Not all of the states were important. Only 9 had to ratify it. However if Virginia, Massachusetts and New York did not ratify we would not have a standing Constitution. Virginia, Massachusetts and New York were right on the line. It was not a done deal, there was an active opposition. Yet we won and we started on this journey. Unitary Government vs. Separation of Powers Government: One of the major differences between the American and other governments. Other governments: real power is only in one house, the others are for show. This a Unitary government: prime minister. Madison said it was good to have multiple parties and leaders to keep their ambitions in check. Executive Orders: More of a unitary government style. Our government will be slower, less responsible and hard to get the government to do anything. But! Checks “on steroids” (Dahl) will keep anyone power from taking over. Background for the Dahl v. Madison Debate: What is the role of government? Dahl: More active government. Madison: Not sure about it, but less active and going slow on power. How important is it for government to be able to act? Dahl: Really important. The people want them to act as long as they are doing what they want it to do. Dahl thinks it’s fine. Madison: wants majority to take over. Is government inaction necessarily worse than government action? Madison: No. there is something much worse than that. Government taking action and taking liberties is bad. Dahl: you have to let the government and the people take some risks. What if government is not responding to the will of the people? In our system of government where is the will of the people expressed? House of representatives? Dahl: Thinks the court shouldn’t have as much power. Fistfights in the Ukrainian Parliament Video: We’ve had it too. Standards for Madison and Dahl: Dahl: Equal representation and majority rule. Why is equal representation of states more important than representation of the people? We want a democratic constitution. Madison: If the government isn’t too powerful, it’s functioning but limited. He would put value on limited government Government controls the power of factions by competing with other factions. Pluralism. He is expecting friction. He wants to encourage multiple factions. Slow change or no change at all. He wants stability. Wants to protect property rights, relating to his views of economic rights and stability. Less concerned about upward mobility, those poor will stay poor. Federalist Papers Essay: thesis this frames your reader where you are going to go. outline be clear and direct. This isn’t creative writing but direct spend time with the question. break it down into it’s parts. touch each of those bases in the outline and the essay. You don’t have to answer the questions in order of the prompt. But you do have to address all of it. Due: January 25 Next week: REVEL essay question: Timed environment before class. Practice essay like you might face on the midterm. No more than 40 minutes on this. Outline and write this. This is a practice essay and will not be graded as harshly, but take it seriously for practice later on. The Headings in the book give you an outline and structure: look at the headings and subheadings as points and parts of the topic. Look at key terms and examples. What are the most important ones that establish a key point? Show that you know it through an application. January 12, 2016 GOP Debate Watch Party: January 14, 79 PM, SWKT 250 Come watch one of the final GOP Debates before Primary Voting Begins. Treats will be Provided. Should be 2 hours. Q&A following. One page for both debates. Paper is due at the end of the month. TONIGHT: State of the Union Address. Outline: Text: Key terms and learning objectives Intellectual Climate of 1787: Scientific Thought Religious Thought Political Thought Conditions at the End of the Revolution Roots of American Constitutional Experiment The Constitutional Convention: Aims Conflict between the large and small states Bitter power struggle between the small and large states Suggestions for the division of power Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Outcome of the quarrel The Central Problem and it’s Solution: Staggered terms of office Conflict and Compromise: John Jay crucial part of Connecticut Compromise. Because they have been legislators they focus the most on legislation. The Small states are a huge part in the compromise of government. Limiting the state's, create independance, President will be more powerful than what the small states would have wanted. Connecticut: the constitution is the supreme law of the land. One part where the people choose: The House of Representatives Checks and balances exist on the Electoral College. If James Madison were to come back today, he would be shocked that the way our country is run now is an extreme to what he was arguing for. No hypotheticals go to the Supreme Court. But if we had a close race and a group of faithless electors, then the people would take this to the court. Purpose of electoral college: to have a winner. We need a winner and a president. Without the electoral college: it enhances state power. Electors: Party regulars. The represent the number of people in the house and the senate. Local official, anyone although typically state party officials, lawyers, etc. The state party chooses them. To Adopt or not to adopt? Federalists vs. Antifederalists The Politics of Ratification Slavery originally was intentionally left out of the Constitution, but then it became a problem when it came to disproportionation of the houses and state representatives. 3/5ths compromise in regards to slave representation in the houses. Antifederalists: Can we really trust centralized power? Centralized power is bad. Centralized = king, monarchy, etc. Basic rights and liberties are not protected in the constitution. Most were located in rural areas Federalists: Write up a clause to the constitution to address the problems that the antifederalists and the people were concerned about. The Bill of Rights was to help persuade the public and get the vote they needed. Op Eds written to persuade were the Federalist Papers. In writing the papers, at this point Madison and Hamilton were of one mind. They were not latter.
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