History Week One Notes
History Week One Notes HIST 1020 Mike Smith
Popular in History 1020
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Grace on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 Mike Smith at Auburn University taught by Mike Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see History 1020 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
On the Edge of Revolution: The World in the Eighteenth Century Friday, January 15, 2016 8:07 AM What is "modern" about modern history? Start with defining pre-modern: Politics o Political order and political ideas in the pre-modern world o The predominant form of political organization would have been a monarchy Main features of a monarchy: Ruled by a monarch (king, queen, Emperor) Sovereignty: claim or ability to enforce rules over a defined territory… In the US, sovereignty belongs with the people In pre-modern worlds, kings rule over their place as if it is something they own Legitimacy justifies sovereignty Most common argument for legitimacy is "god has appointed me because …" Even in non-Christian countries, they used some sort of divine right In pre-modern societies, religion and politics are very closely intertwined Barriers to monarchal power Getting a group of people to carry out your orders and your will… for example: army, officials Maybe not having enough money to pay those officials… so you forge alliances with powerful people. This is a trade off because the king would give a fancy title, special privileges in return for support of rule This makes the powerful people dependent on the monarch, but also the monarch is dependent on the people… causes a struggle between two forces because they are in competition with each other Transportation Remember: no electricity or modern technology… have to walk or ride horse Say a Russian monarch issues an order, sends out order to noblemen, might take up to 3 to 4 months for a message to get through If there is an emergency, like a rebellion or crisis, you might not find out for awhile To avoid issues with this, the kings have to share power and trust their nobility Collecting information Population, statistics Makes it hard to know how much money everyone has to know how much to tax Economy and the biological "old regime" o Begins with low level of agricultural technology and production o Vast majority of people would be poor farmers o Substinence economy: one in which the vast number of people produce just enough food and other materials to provide for their own needs There is always some sort of market or trade and exchange, but substinence is the majority Creates a prob with economic development Very little opportunity to sell things Social Structure o One way to organize and maintain stability within political system is to divide people into classes, creating a hierarchy o Each group has it's own clearly defined function in society Nobility: day to day functions of government Merchants: provide king with luxury products and services Peasants: crops and taxes Early Modern Period European age of exploration o European peoples began to travel the world, mainly for trade routes Columbian exchange o Major boosts in world population because of the sudden appearance of potato and peanuts from americas because of a boost in the food supply o So ag technology did not increase, but since food supply increased, it became less difficult to survive Ecological bonus o Columbian exchange provided an ecological bonus for Europe Improving farmers o Began discussing ideal techniques of farming (wealthy farmers) o These better techniques began to spread across Europe which also increased technology Industrious revolution o Farmers began to engage in secondary work o Instead of just harvesting and working in fields and sleeping, began to use spare time for producing goods to sell in market (basket weaving, building wooden goods) Shift from the sustenance economy to the market economy during the industrious revolution From pre-modern to early modern society o Market economy o With the increase of market activity, they need a central location to buy and sell, most likely a town… town's because rich and grow because of trade. With the growth of towns, comes the growth of town dwellers Town an city dwellers are people who live in market economy (live entirely in trade and manufacturing) and this group is growing exponentially o This leads to a growth in the Middle class (bourgeoisie) Before this, middle class existed but was a tiny portion of the population Don't really fit into the existing social structure… not part of the elite or aristocracy.. Not poor farmers Relatively well educated.. Rely on ability to manufacture things or intelligence to trade Have a certain level of wealth… not struggling to survive… have leisure to consume, read and educate, and strengthen their skills In terms of the economy, a hierarchal society means that only certain people can do certain trades They begin to look for changes in government and want to become involved o Trade, War, and Enlightenment in Europe Europeans are the forefront of this movement Fiscal-military state During this time, the countries within Europe were fighting each other 1500-1815 seven years where there was no major war in europe… LOTS OF FIGHTING This fighting may have changed the way the government works New ways of managing kingdoms and controlling people Rational beaurocratic government Scientific Revolution Growth of middle class, increasing prosperity led to an increase in education and communication between educated people Printing press helped them communicate Beginning roughly around 1400's-1700's Isaac Newton's Law of Gravity Enlightenment Scientific revolution led to this 1) Newton: appears that universe is ruled by a certain set of laws (motion of the planet, etc.) and these rules can be understood by human beings Progress Enlightenment thinkers believe that it is possible to discover the laws of human society.. With this knowledge we can improve human society This attitude is very different from pre-modern societies Believe society CAN be improved and made better through a process of understanding the laws that govern human nature… different from pre-modern What is human nature? What makes humans different from animals?? The ability to reason Utopianism Most enlightenment thinkers the best sense of government would be a society where all individuals have some ability to participate in decisions "Well-ordered society police state" Some thinkers believe that since human's have a selfish manner, we need a ruler too govern and make sure eveything goes as planned