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Microbiology, Week 1

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by: Lilas Mekinawe

Microbiology, Week 1 Microbiology 101

Lilas Mekinawe
GPA 3.93
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About this Document

This will be on the exam (Feb. 8). This is a part of Chp1 and 3, combined. (She likes to skip around)
MBIO 101
Dr. Helmick
Class Notes
MBIOS 101 Microbiology




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"Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Lilas!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol"
Rowena Rath

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lilas Mekinawe on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Microbiology 101 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Helmick in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 102 views.


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Star Star Star Star Star

Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Lilas!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

-Rowena Rath


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Date Created: 01/16/16
CHP. 1 THE MICROBAL WORLD History st  1665 Robert Hook, was the 1 person to observe cells  1673 Anton Van Leeuvenhoek developed the brass microscope and lenses by grinding glass Cell Shape  Knowing the shape of a cells helps us to categorize and identify certain species of microbes, and whether they are normal flora organisms or opportunistic pathogenic. We can also determine, where they come from, which helps controlling their population. For example, a cell shape like a spirochete is likely to come from pond water.  Opportunistic Pathogen: When microbes that used to be normal flora organism, have an environmental change. That causes the microbes to want to “fight off” whatever they feel is threatening. Therefore, becoming harmful. They can destroy other good bacteria, release toxins, etc.  Normal Flora Organism: Organisms that are not harmful or threatening.  Coccus: round shaped organism  Bacillus: rod shaped. Longer than it is wide  Coccobacillus: Longer than is wide, with curved edges.  Vibrio: Curved, shaped like a boomerang  Spirillum: Shaped like a spiral, looks like a wavelength. Usually big in size.  Spirochete: Resembles a corkscrew Cell Arrangements  No matter how many cells there is, they are still individual cells, that just group together.  Diplococci: 2 round shaped cells. Grouped together  Streptococci: Chain of round cells linked together  Tetrad: 4 cells bonded together  Staph cocci: Many cells linked together; resembles a cluster of grapes.  Sapciane: 6 cells grouped together Cell Structure 2 types of cells-  Prokaryotes, Unicellular: Microbes are made of this  Eukaryotes, Multicellular: Humans and animals are made up of this. YOU are made of Eukaryote cells  Glycocalyx: External coat of cell made up of a protein sugar structure. This then forms biofilms, which are little ecosystems for the microorganisms. This is where they self-feed. Function: Is to protect the cell and attach to other cells o There are 2 types 1. Slime Layer: Outer layer made up of a sugar composition. It’s a loose structure that forms on the outside, for example the “stuff” you feel on your teeth when you first wake up. Or the slimy stuff on a rock.  These are produced by streptococcus mutants, which are normal flora bacteria. 2. Capsule: Like the slime layer, just not are slimy and is more structured.  Even though this is made by NFO, they can still become opportunistic pathogens. For example, these “mutants” can enter the bloodstream during a teeth cleaning, travel to the heart, and possibly attach to heart valves. This can cause endocarditis, which is the heart linings becoming infected due to bacteria. (More susceptible if you have a heart murmur, have had major surgery or any artificial body parts.)


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