Chapter 1 & 2 (Notes through January 15th)
Chapter 1 & 2 (Notes through January 15th) 22075
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 22075 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Matti in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Chemical Skills and Reasoning in Chemistry at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
Chapter 1 Why is Chemistry important? o New materials o New pharmaceuticals o New energy sources o Food supplies o Help the environment o Everything around you has chemistry in it What is Chemistry? o The science that deals with the materials of the universe and the changes that these materials undergo. o The central science Understanding most other fields of science requires an understanding of chemistry Solving Problems using a Scientific Approach o Recognize the problem and state it clearly Making an observation Ex. I want to get an A in Chemistry o Propose possible solutions to the problem or possible explanations for the observation Formulating a hypothesis Ex. In order to get an A in Chemistry, I will study hard and come to class. o Decide which of the solutions is the best or decide whether the explanation proposed is reasonable. Performing an experiment Ex. Have one student go to every class vs. another student who doesn’t go to every class The Scientific Method o Science is a framework for gaining and organizing knowledge o Science is a plan of action – a procedure for processing and understanding certain types of information o Scientists are always challenging our current beliefs about science, asking questions, and experimenting to gain new knowledge Scientific method is NEEDED. Theory vs. Law o Theory predicts WHY something happened Set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon o Law summarizes WHAT happened Chapter 2 Measurement o A number + a unit The number tells how big or small The unit tells what you are dealing with it Scientific Notation o Any double digit number can be represented as a product of a number between 1 10 and the appropriate power of 10 (either + or ) o The power of 10 depends on the number of places the decimal is moved in which direction Ex. 700 = 7.0 x 10^2 o If the decimal point is moved to the left, the power of 10 is positive o If the decimal point is moved to the right, the power of 10 is negative Significant Figures o Leading zeros zeroes that are at the beginning of the number 0.0000039 = 2 significant figures o Nonzero integers ALWAYS as significant figures 3456 = 4 significant figures o Captive zeros are zeros that fall between nonzero digits. ALWAYS count as significant 16.07 = 4 significant figures o Trailing zeros have zeros at the right end of the number. They are significant ONLY if the number contains a decimal point 9.300 = 4 significant figures 150 = 2 significant figures Rules for Rounding off o If the digit to be removed is less than 5, the preceding digit stays the same Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations o For multiplication/division, the number of significant figures in the result is the same as that in the measurement with the smallest number of significant figures 1.342 x 5.5 = 7.381 7.4 When multiplying/dividing measurement by an EXACT number, the answer should be rounded to the same number of significant figures as the measurement o For addition/subtraction, the limiting term is the one with the smallest number of decimal places 23.445 + 7.83 = 31.275 31.28 Converting from one unit to another o To convert from one unit to another, use the equivalence statement that relates the 2 units 1ft = 12 in or 12 in = 1 ft o Choose the appropriate conversion factor by looking at the direction of the required change (make sure the unwanted units cancel). o Multiply the quantity to be converted by the conversion factor to give the quantity with the desired units o Check that you have the correct number of significant figures Temperature Scales o Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin o Equation(s) Kelvin = Celsius +273 Celsius = Kelvin – 273 Celsius = (Fahrenheit – 32)/1.80 Fahrenheit = 1.80(Celsius)+32
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