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Chapter 1 & 2 (Notes through January 15th)

by: Michelle Notetaker

Chapter 1 & 2 (Notes through January 15th) 22075

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Chemistry > 22075 > Chapter 1 2 Notes through January 15th
Michelle Notetaker
GPA 3.4
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About this Document

These notes are from her lectures through January 15th.
Chemical Skills and Reasoning
Dr. Matti
Class Notes
Chemistry, Wayne State University, Matti




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 22075 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Matti in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Chemical Skills and Reasoning in Chemistry at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 01/16/16
Chapter 1   Why is Chemistry important? o New materials o New pharmaceuticals o New energy sources o Food supplies o Help the environment o Everything around you has chemistry in it  What is Chemistry? o The science that deals with the materials of the universe and the changes that  these materials undergo. o The central science  Understanding most other fields of science requires an understanding of  chemistry  Solving Problems using a Scientific Approach o Recognize the problem and state it clearly  Making an observation  Ex. I want to get an A in Chemistry o Propose possible solutions to the problem or possible explanations for the  observation  Formulating a hypothesis  Ex. In order to get an A in Chemistry, I will study hard and come  to class. o Decide which of the solutions is the best or decide whether the explanation  proposed is reasonable.  Performing an experiment  Ex. Have one student go to every class vs. another student who  doesn’t go to every class  The Scientific Method o Science is a framework for gaining and organizing knowledge o Science is a plan of action – a procedure for processing and understanding certain  types of information o Scientists are always challenging our current beliefs about science, asking  questions, and experimenting to gain new knowledge  Scientific method is NEEDED.  Theory vs. Law o Theory  predicts WHY something happened  Set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some natural  phenomenon o Law  summarizes WHAT happened Chapter 2  Measurement o A number + a unit  The number tells how big or small  The unit tells what you are dealing with it  Scientific Notation o Any double digit number can be represented as a product of a number between 1­ 10 and the appropriate power of 10 (either + or ­) o The power of 10 depends on the number of places the decimal is moved in which  direction  Ex. 700 = 7.0 x 10^2 o If the decimal point is moved to the left, the power of 10 is positive o If the decimal point is moved to the right, the power of 10 is negative  Significant Figures o Leading zeros  zeroes that are at the beginning of the number  0.0000039 = 2 significant figures o Nonzero integers ALWAYS as significant figures  3456 = 4 significant figures o Captive zeros are zeros that fall between nonzero digits. ALWAYS count as  significant  16.07 = 4 significant figures o Trailing zeros have zeros at the right end of the number. They are significant  ONLY if the number contains a decimal point  9.300 = 4 significant figures  150 = 2 significant figures  Rules for Rounding off o If the digit to be removed is less than 5, the preceding digit stays the same  Significant Figures in Mathematical Operations o For multiplication/division, the number of significant figures in the result is the  same as that in the measurement with the smallest number of significant figures  1.342 x 5.5 = 7.381  7.4  When multiplying/dividing measurement by an EXACT number, the  answer should be rounded to the same number of significant figures as the  measurement o For addition/subtraction, the limiting term is the one with the smallest number of  decimal places  23.445 + 7.83 = 31.275  31.28  Converting from one unit to another o To convert from one unit to another, use the equivalence statement that relates the 2 units  1ft = 12 in or 12 in = 1 ft o Choose the appropriate conversion factor by looking at the direction of the  required change (make sure the unwanted units cancel). o Multiply the quantity to be converted by the conversion factor to give the quantity with the desired units o Check that you have the correct number of significant figures  Temperature Scales o Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin o Equation(s)  Kelvin = Celsius +273  Celsius = Kelvin – 273  Celsius = (Fahrenheit – 32)/1.80  Fahrenheit = 1.80(Celsius)+32


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