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math 155 practice notes

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by: Caleb Friedrich

math 155 practice notes MA155

Marketplace > Southeast Missouri State University > MA155 > math 155 practice notes
Caleb Friedrich
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caleb Friedrich on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MA155 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 01/16/16
Caleb Friedrich Chemistry  Chapter 9  A chemical bond is an attractive force between atoms that is strong enough to enable the  group to act as a unit.   A compound is composed of two or more elements that have combined chemically.   The most important factor affecting how atoms form chemical bonds is the number of  valence electrons in each atom involved.   Elements toward the left of the periodic table tend to lose electrons in bonding, while  elements toward the right of the periodic table tend to gain electrons in bonding.   Atoms that lose electrons become negative ions (anions) Atoms that gain electrons become positive ions (cations) A chemical bond in which positively charged ions are electrically attracted to negatively  charged ions is an ionic bond.   Ionic bonds can form between groups of atoms, forming large ionic compounds. Ionic compounds do not consist of molecules.   The elements on the left side of the periodic table (metals) react with those elements on  the far right (nonmetals­ excluding the noble gases) to form ionic crystalline solids.  Since ionization energies increase and electron affinities become more negative wen  proceeding from left to right across the periodic table, elements that are far apart have the greatest differences in electron­attracting characteristics (electronegativity) A chemical bond that results from the sharing of valence electrons between atoms is a  covalent bond.   The mutual attraction of both positive nuclei for the negatively charged electron cloud  holds the nuclei together in a covalent bond.   All electrons are identical When two atoms share a single pair of electrons, the bond is a single covalent bond  (single bond) Sharing two pairs of electrons forms a double bond Sharing three pairs of electrons forms a triple bond Covalent bonds hold atoms together in discrete molecules Covalent networks are composed of billions or trillions of atoms that are bonded together  into a single unit by strong covalent bonds.    The chemical bonds that bind atoms together is the metallic bond  The large number of freely circulating electrons gives metals their characteristic  properties In most cases the bonding in compounds is not completely ionic, covalent, or metallic A bond is considered predominantly ionic if the electronegativity difference between the  two bonded atoms is greater than 1.7 A covalent bond in which both atoms share electrons equally is a nonpolar bond A covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally between atoms is a polar bond A partial charge is only a fraction of a full charge such as 1+ or 1­  A bond or molecule that has a negative end and a positive end forms a dipole because it  has two poles Knowing the Lewis structures of the elements allows us to predict how they will combine to form covalent substances Delocalized electrons are electrons that circulate freely through the molecule instead of  being bound to a single atom or pair of atoms A bonding situation in which electrons are shared by more than two atoms is called  delocalization The theory of valence­shell electron­pair repulsion uses this assumption to predict the  shapes of molecules Only the positions of atoms describe the molecule’s shape Nonbonding electron pairs repel more than bonding pairs The hydrogen and oxygen atoms thus have an angular geometry since only atoms  describe the shape of the molecule The geometry that allows three electron pairs to get as far apart as possible is the trigonal  planar geometry A molecule that has a symmetrical distribution of polar bonds will have no net dipole and will be nonpolar Intermolecular forces are forces between molecules The forces between neighboring polar molecules due to the attraction of oppositely  charged ends are dipole­dipole forces and are present in all polar molecules London forces are the only type of intermolecular force that affects nonpolar molecules London forces are weak intermolecular forces resulting from instantaneous dipoles in  molecules Boiling points for similar compounds tend to increase with molar mass The unusually strong intermolecular force between molecules containing hydrogen  covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom is a hydrogen bond Hydrogen bonds are much stronger than other intermolecular forces In a solid the particles are fixed in definite positions about which they vibrate A few solids have no ordered arrangement or pattern for the particles that compose them  and are known as amorphous solids The second type of solid is a crystalline solid, characterized by particles arranged in a  regular and repeated three­dimensional pattern The simplest repeating unit in a crystal is called the unit cell The simple cubic unit cell has two unit­cell arrangements derived from it.  These are the  body­centered cubic arrangement and the face­centered cubic arrangement One of the most efficient crystal structures is hexagonal close packing.  As its name  suggest, this arrangement allows atoms to be packed together as tightly as possible and  minimizes empty space Liquid crystals are able to move freely in certain directions while retaining a degree of  order in others


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