New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week One Physiology Notes

by: Alesa Taylor

Week One Physiology Notes 3014

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > 3014 > Week One Physiology Notes
Alesa Taylor
GPA 3.57
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Human Physiology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Human Physiology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Chapters 1 and 2
Human Physiology
James Stewart
Class Notes




Popular in Human Physiology

Popular in Department

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alesa Taylor on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3014 at Mississippi State University taught by James Stewart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 205 views.


Reviews for Week One Physiology Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/16/16
1/12/16 Chapter 1: Introduction to Physiology st  1 Golden Age of Physiology- 1628, William Harvey  Consolidation- 1750, Standstill in European medicine due to philosophical Idealism; 1840, Darwin, Pasteur, Koch nd  2 Golden Age of Physiology- 1889, first congress of physiology; 1953, first meeting of the physiological society; 1977, pharmacology and other disciplines split off from physiology  Cell/Molecular Genetic Systems- 2000, Age of Omecis( things like genomics, processing lots of data to get information)  William Harvey( 1578-1657) o Distinguished anatomy from physiology o Described the function of the heart in circulatory system o Used knowledge of physics and chemistry to base studies in similar to those in modern physiology  What is Physiology? o The study of how living organisms function  very broad range of application, from molecular to microscopic to whole body function  Major Themes 1. structure and function are closely related 2. living organisms need energy- energy source, transfer, storage, and use 3. Information flow coordinates body function 4. homeostasis maintains internal stability despite external variables  As physiologist we study how body parts work together( Integrated Function) how various levels of organization are integrated( Mechanistic Approach) and overall function of the human body  Anatomy studies the levels of organisms, body parts, and deconstructs the human body  Physiology examines the functions of the levels of organisms, shows how they work cohesively, and reconstructs the body showing how it all works together  Major Theme 1 o Structural hierarchy or organization o Compartmentalization o Morphology and mechanical properties of how protein, cell, tissue will affect the bodys functional properties  Developmental organizations o During early development all cells are the same which is called stem cell origin- with time each cell becomes specialized which is called cell differentiation- cells become specialized based on function  How is the body organized? o Chemical level (Molecular level)  Small molecules- small groups of atoms like water and carbon dioxide  Macromolecules- larger groups of atoms which are divided into four classes: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids  Cellular level- cells and their functional subunits( organelles) o Tissue level- a group of cells working together to perform a common function; there are four types of tissues  Epithelium- covers the body’s surface  Connective- provides support  Muscle- controls movement  Nervous- controls communication o Organ level- more than one tissue functioning together o Organ system- multiple organs working together for a common purpose o Organism level- highest level, all simpler organs working together in unison  Body Fluids and Compartments outside of cells o Body fluids- the watery solution of dissolved substances within the body, like oxygen, nutrients, minerals, etc. o Body fluid in blood and surrounding cells is called extracellular fluid  20-25% of the fluid is blood  75-80% of the fluid is interstitial fluid- extracellular fluid lies around and between cells in the space called intersitium  the total volume of extracellular fluid is the sum of the plasma and interstitial volumes  considered homogeneous o Body fluid located inside the cells is called interstitial or intracellular  Fluid inside the cells is very different from fluid outside the cells, it contains proteins and other things that are used for cell growth and development  Maintaining the differences in fluid composition across the cell membrane is an important way in which cells regulate their own activity (maintain homeostasis)  Intracellular fluids should not be considered homogeneous because there are differences within the organelles fluids inside the same cell o There is more fluid inside the cells than there is outside the cells o Keeping the fluids separate and in the correct places is necessary for cellular information exchange and communication and is the way the body maintains homeostasis o 30% of body fluids is outside of cells, 70% is inside cells  Tissues- cells do not work independently o Informal definition of tissues- cells that work together in functionally related communities o Formal definition- a group of closely associated cells that preform closely related functions and are similar in structure o Tissues are not all made up of living cells—they have a non-living extracellular component- when the cell dies it is filled with keratin (the same stuff that makes up fingernails and hair) and is called the extracellular matrix—when the extracellular matrix is increased the environment around it gets a lot stiffer  Ex. A diabetic patient has trouble healing from wounds because they have more extracellular matrix that makes it harder for the skin to bond back together and heal  Connective tissue- is supportive, keeps cells in line, gives organs their shape  Epithelial tissue- found wherever two environments meet, made up of a sheet of cells, covers the bodies surface, and lines the body cavities, forms glands, functions as protection for the body, secretes mucous (like in the lungs and the sinuses), absorbs minerals and nutrients, transports ions cross membranes, filters what goes into the body/organs, forms slippery surfaces  Functions of connective tissue: connect tissues and bind organs together, holds in body fluids, basis of the skeletal structure, stores and carries nutrients, surrounds all vessels and nerves, protect the body against infection o Fat is a good example of connective tissue  Muscle tissue- made up of muscle/ fibers  Elongated shape able to contract (shorten) giving the bod the ability to move  Arranged in myofilaments that contain actin and myosin  Functions of muscle tissue: body movement, keeping body posture, stabilizes joints, generates heat (like when the body shivers in the cold)  There are three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, smooth  Nervous tissue- made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial o Neurons- specialized nerve cells conduct impulses composed of Cell body, dendrite, axon o Supporting cells (glial cells)- nonconducting that nourish, insulate and protect neurons  Nervous cells does not replicate (no mitosis), they will not be able to replicate if damaged— terminally differentiated; since they don’t replicate they have a long lifespan unlike many other cells, they also have a high metabolic rate and are not dependent on insulin  Homeostasis- the biggest factor in physiology; a state of reasonably stable balance within the body no matter the variables- the most common variations are within a range of “normal” o Common normal ranges for the body- blood pressure 120/80 mmHg and 98.6 degrees F  Dynamic, not static, process. Body changes to maintain homeostasis o Law of mass balance- if the amount is to remain constant and gain must be corrected with equal loss o Dynamic consistency- physiological variations can change drastically over a 24 hour period—but the body changes to maintain homeostasis, can change as much to shut down an entire problem causing organ o Ex. Blood glucose- after meals blood glucose levels spike, then homeostatic mechanisms kick in and the levels quickly go down below normal homeostasis, then return to normal, in the long term view the body is out of homeostasis for very short periods of time and is over all normal  Think of homeostasis like a thermostat- it is set to the desired “temperature” and proceeds to turn on heat when necessary to maintain the set “temperature”- this is known as steady state there is steady energy going in to maintain homeostasis o Equilibrium- is like when the thermostat is set to 72 degrees and all the windows are open and it is 72 degrees outside—no energy is being used to maintain homeostasis o Set point or operating point- what the body has determined as “normal” range  Homeostatic control systems are called feedback loops or systems, there are two types: positive feedback system and negative feedback system o Positive feedback system ( Feed forward)- enhances the production of the product- doesn’t recognize the set point of homeostasis and keeps adding energy causing some sort of bodily event like childbirth o Negative feedback system- negative doesn’t mean it’s a bad thing, it just means that it has a set stopping point at homeostasis, once the process reaches the homeostatic level the process is shut off  Positive causes a snowball effect of energy until the bodily process ends 1/14/16 Chapter 2 Molecular Interactions  Xavier Bichat( 17711-1802) “father of modern histology”  Cellular processes- energy production, membrane transport, cell anatomy and physiology, and gene expression—all of these processes are determined by the properties of the organisms  The processes are: multicellular with complex structures, must get, transform, store, and use energy, must sense and respond to events in the internal and external environment, must maintain homeostasis through internal control systems (feedback loops), must develop, grow, reproduce, and die, must use and transmit energy, must adapt and evolve  Energy producing chemical reactions must proceed according to the laws of thermodynamics o The law of conservation of energy- energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can change forms, and flow from one place to another—but the total energy must remain the same o The law of entropy- spontaneous natural processes increase overall entropy (disorganization)  Heat can spontaneously be conducted or radiated, but only from places of higher energy to places of lower energy (like diffusion/osmosis) o Energy- the ability/capability to do work o Energetics- energy transfer between systems, Bioenergetics  Types of energy o Potential- stored energy o Kinetic- energy of movement  Animals rely on all types of energy radiant, mechanical, electrical, thermal, and chemical  there are two main types of energy inconvertible which is unusable, and transferrable, which is the kinds listed above  radiant energy- energy released in wave form (ex. The energy stored in plants and Vitamin D being absorbed via sunlight)  mechanical energy- combination of potential and kinetic energy, used to move things from place to place  electrical energy- combination of potential and kinetic energy—is a movement of charged particles along a diffusion gradient; from high energy to low energy


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.