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BY 123, Notes for Week 1

by: Noah Probst

BY 123, Notes for Week 1 BY 123-2F

Noah Probst
GPA 4.0
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These notes cover Chapter 1 and part of Chapter 2, the first two chapters on our upcoming exam. I hope they'll help you immensely!
General Biology
Samiksha Ashok Raut
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noah Probst on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BY 123-2F at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Samiksha Ashok Raut in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Art at University of Alabama at Birmingham.


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Date Created: 01/16/16
Introductory Biology I Ch. 1: Evolution, Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry *NOTE: All references to figures are figures in Introductory Biology 1 by Campbell Learning Objectives: ­ Concept of life ­ Biological Organization/Hierarchy ­ Themes in Biology ­ Scientific Method A. Concept of Life 1. Biology – Bio=life; logy=study 2. Biologist – One who studies biology.  3. Branches/specialties of biology – cell, biochemistry, bacteriology, bioinformatics, etc. 4. What is life? What comes to mind when you think of life? Alive. How is  something alive? Physiological activities (breathing, eating, energy­processing),  response to a stimuli, process energy, reproduction, ATP.  See Fig. 1.2 in book ** Everything in biology has specific order. E.g. energy processing, parts of sunflower,  response to the environment, evolutionary adaptation (all things adapted to environment  in some way).  **See Fig. on p. 2 Theme: New properties emerge at each level in biological organization/hierarchy.  Google Earth analogy: Biology is the same in that you must use a reductionist approach.  Start with the biosphere and zoom in. Google Earth=earthcountrystatecityyour  house. Biology (in decreasing size order) = biosphere  ecosystem  community   population  organism  organ system  organ  tissue  cell  organelle   macromolecule  molecule.  Biological organization/hierarchy Emergent properties – assemble simple things Reductionism – breaks down to simple approach to study final details.  Systems Biology  Theme: Organisms Interact with Other Organisms and the Physical Environment ­ Organisms constantly are interdependent on one another Theme: Life Requires Energy Transfer and Transformation ­ All organisms need energy to do work; ATP in form of chemical energy ­ In figures 1.6a – energy flow from sunlight to producers to consumers and b – using  energy to do work Theme: Structure and Function are correlated at All Levels of Biological Organization ­ E.g. birds bodies are light, bones are hollow – if heavy, birds wouldn’t be able to take off Theme: The cell is organism’s basic unit of structure and function/life ­ Eukaryotic – “Eu”=true; “karyon”=nucleus; DNA bound in nucleus by membrane ­ Prokaryotic – “Pro”=first; “karyon”=nucleus; primitive (old) nucleus; much smaller;  no nucleus – DNA suspended in cytoplasm, no organelles, no endoplasmic reticulum **Remember fine distinctions between eukaryotes (can be single or multicellular) and  prokaryotes (always unicellular).  Theme: Continuation of life based on hereditable info in the form of DNA ­ Any given organism (Fig 1.6) – starts as nuclei containing DNA, ends as offspring  with traits from both parents.  ­ Fig 1.7 – double helix ­ DNA known as master molecule ­ Fig. 1.8 (parts of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell – KNOW THEM!) Theme: Feedback Mechanisms Regulate Biological Systems ­ Fig. 1.13a (a) Negative feedback – very good way for cell to shut off processes (like when you  turn off lights to save electricity) – reason many processes in cell come to stop (b) Positive feedback – produces more and more – z feeds back into system and keeps the process going. E.g. oxytocin – hormone produced when women go into labor,  stops when baby expelled due to negative feedback. Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life. ­ Taxonomy – places organisms in specific groups (classify w/ class system) ­ 3 higher levels of classification are the domains of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.  ­ The domain is the highest level of taxonomy.  ­ Bacteria – no membrane­bound nucleus, prokaryotes. Archaea – no membrane­bound nucleus, prokaryotes. Eukarya – multicellular  Dependent on mode of nutrition   Kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia; unicellular  protists. ­ See Fig. 1.15 Scientific Method ­ How do scientists do science? Observations, forming logical hypotheses, testing, data, inference/conclusion. Data, qualitative or quantitative? Qualitative – in form of  descriptions. Quantitative – anything you can measure. ­ E.g. Jane Goodall’s study on primates.  Questions that cannot be answered by science ­ A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable  ­ E.g. a hypothesis that ghosts are fooled by a flashlight cannot be tested ­ Supernatural and religious explanations outside the bounds of science Experimental group – E.g. taking nucleus out of amoeba to see if it dies Control group – to rule out effects by other factors; make sure microloop in Fig. 1­17, p  18. Theories in Science ­ In the context of science, a theory is (a) broader in scope than a hypothesis; (b)  general, and can lead to new testable hypotheses; and (c) supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis  ­ Theory is not immortal; e.g. cell theory KEY TERMS: theory, hypothesis, cell theory, cell, population, taxonomy, domain,  kingdom, prokaryote, eukaryote, hypothesis testing, observational study, exponential  study, control group.   Chapter 2 Learning objectives: ­ Structure of atoms ­ Molecules ­ Bonds KEY TERMS: neutron, electron, proton, element, atomic number, isotope, mass number,  valence shell, valence electron, chemical bond, covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond,  polar covalent bond, electronegativity, polarity, ionic bond, ion, cation, anion, single  bond, double bond, triple bond ­ Importance of chemistry in biology – we eat and breathe chemicals ­ Review: Matter is anything that takes up space; elements can’t be broken down; atom  – nucleus made of protons and neutrons and surrounded by electrons (technically do  not orbit) in the form of a negative cloud. Electrons determine chemical behavior.  Compound examples – sodium + chlorine = sodium chloride (NaCl).   *Fig 2.3 Table 2.1 Elements in the human body: O, C, H, N, Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg, and trace elements. *know atomic and mass numbers and isotopes Fig. 2.8 Octet rule ­ Elements tend to lose, gain, or share electrons to obtain complete outer shell with 8  electrons ­ Octet rule and chemical stability? A complete outer shell with eight electrons  increases stability. ­ The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms ­ Atoms with incomplete valence shells can share or transfer electrons The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms ­ Atoms with incomplete valence shells can share or transfer valence electrons with  certain other atoms ­ These interactions usually result in atoms staying close together, held by attractions.  Covalent bonds ­ The sharing of a pair of valence electrons by 2 atoms ­ In a covalent bond, the shared electrons count as part of each atom’s valence shell.  *Fig 2.12 Ionic bonds ­ Formed by complete transfer of electrons ­ Fig 2.16 ­ Hydrogen bonding – not bonds; force of attraction – function as bridges between  molecules or parts of same molecule Van der Waals Interactions ­ Electrons shared equally ­ Geckos can climb on walls because of these interactions in their feet Molecular Shape and Function ­ Shape tied with functions (molecular geometry in chemistry) ­ E.g. endorphin effect – natural molecule released by brain that releases pain ­ Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds ­ 2H +2  22H O 2 ­ Photosynthesis is an important chemical reaction


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