Week 1 Notes - HIST 202
Week 1 Notes - HIST 202 HIST 202
Popular in Nineteenth Century American History
Political Science 20
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Saturday January 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at University of Oregon taught by Steve Beda in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Nineteenth Century American History in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/16/16
Popular Politics amp Andrew Jackson Day 1 1416 Popular Politics amp Andrew Jackson For all their political differences Donald Trump amp Bernie Sanders say they This no doubt is part of their appeal Why do American politicians regularly make sometimes desperate attempts to appear as everyday people as just one of us Quirk of American politics can in many ways be traced back to 19th Century The Old Meanings of Democracy Americans of the late 17th amp early 18th C de ned democracy very differently Democratic government system where independent amp virtuous people willingly deferred to wealthy enlightened leaders Politicians should lead people not represent them Historians termed this as DP quotScene from Shay s Rebellionquot 1787 George Caleb Bingham Stump Speaking 1853 Speaking to everyone Now people have power The New Meanings of Democracy quotDP gave way to representative politics in 18205 18305 people believed politician s job lead amp not represent people thought ordinary men should run for of ce What Explains this Transformation Expanding Suffrage Prior to 1800 most states had limited voting to people who owned property or paid taxes A5 nation expanded people founding new states created new rules that undermined traditional authority structures Most new states extended right to vote to all white males over age of 21 Newspapers amp the Printing Revolution In 18205 many printers started to adopt steampowered presses Printing became cheaper amp politicians could produce campaign literature of newspapers soared from 376 1810 to 1200 1835 Economic Changes quotMarket Revolutionquot 18105 18205 economy changed dramatically Popular Politics amp Andrew Jackson Day 1 1416 many skilled workers lost independence amp became wage earners in factories workshops owned by others urban workers realized their own interests were different from those of the owners many workers formed political parties for their organizations Philadelphia Working Men s Party formed to press for 10hour day free public education amp end of imprisonment for debt Election of 1828 In many ways pres Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson v John Quincy Adams was America s 1st quotmodernquot election Jackson portrayed himself as quotman of the peoplequot Backwoods upbringing lack of education Supporters organized public rallies parades amp BBQ s At same time Jackson s opponents spread rumors about him in press said he couldn t read amp called wife a bigamist Jackson elected landslide Andrew Jackson39s Inauguration Grand party for everyone White House Farmers quotThis White House is for you amp usquot The Limits of Popular Democracy Although in some ways politics in the 18305 had become more egalitarian in other ways it hadn t Women denied the vote only 5 N states allowed free African Americans to vote Racism amp sexism are central to story thought preserving democracy by limiting voting to white males instead of also women blacks Women Denial to vote stemmed from traditional belief that men headed households Politics seen as too vitriolic amp combative Women had more important role raise next generation of American citizens African Americans In N many white men recognized that blacks were socially disadvantaged Popular Politics amp Andrew Jackson Day 1 1416 Protected integrity of African American politics by not letting them vote The Big Point amp the Big Question National Expansion amp Indian Removal Day 2 1616 Remembering National Expansion Bible based curriculum says Trail of Tears path to Christ quotLouisiana Gov Bobby Jindal s voucher program to privatize public education has come under re recently for spending state tax dollars to teach Biblebased curriculum One of those facts students will learn under the state s new program is that God used the Trail of Tears to bring many Indians to Christ quot Indian Country Today Aug 17 2012 high school football banner McAdory High quotTrail of Tears reworks While the Louisiana curriculum proposals amp incident at McAdory High School are extreme examples many people continue to believe that early 19th C Indian removal wasn t that bad Or if they concede it was bad they neverless see Indian removal as a regrettable but nevertheless necessary step in American progress Emanuel Gottleb Leutze Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way 1860 The 19th Century Population Boom Between 1800 amp 1820 white population of America nearly doubled 53 mill 96 million The Westward Surge Both push amp pull factors brought whites westward Overpopulated farms sent people west looking for land Government land policy encouraged them to look for that land in the west Land Act of 1820 In part to legitimize US claim to western lands Congress passed Land Act Land Act of 1820 set price of federal lands in the west 125 an acre The law required a 100 down payment amp a minimum of 80 acres The quotIndian Problemquot Native Americans were in America rst Americans needed land NA pushed out Diversity in Indian Country Many tribes w different cultures The quotFive Civilized Tribesquot Native American Cherokee Chickasaw Choctaw Creek amp Seminole National Expansion amp Indian Removal Day 2 1616 Tribe Years Remov Death toll ed Cheroke 1836 20000 4000 e 1838 8000 Chickasa 1831 12500 500 800 w 1836 Choctaw 1837 4000 2000 1847 4000 Creek 1834 19600 3500 1837 Seminole 1832 2833 700 1842 The Trail of Tears Under continued pressure from the military amp feds Cherokee were forced out of Georgia moved to Oklahoma Indian Removal Act of 1830 Signed into law by Andrew Jackson gave executive branch right to negotiate treaties w Native peoples amp if necessary use force to relocate native groups Worchester v Georgia 1832 Georgia declared Cherokee were tenants on Georgia land amp made it a crime to any Cherokee trying to in uence others to stay in Georgia Jackson supported law 1832 missionary Samuel Worchester challenged Georgia in court state didn t have right to dictate laws Georgia Superior Court ruled that Cherokee were a quotdomestic independent nationquot King Cotton Slavery amp The Political Economy of the South Day 3 1816 King Cotton Was slavery a quotdying institution in the 19th C Would it have quotdied a natural deathquot Answering this question requires us to understand the POLITICAL ECONOMY of the 19th C South Why do we still care about this question Why is Andrew Napolitano insistent that slavery was dying out Why is Jon Stewart adamant that it was not Refers to relationship between economic legal social amp political systems To study political economy means studying the ways that economics politics laws amp customs are connected amp shape one another From Tobacco to Cotton A Brief Culture of Southern Agriculture Tobacco dominated economy of Great Britain s colonies throughout 17th 18th C Cotton cultivation amp production was expensive time consuming amp besides that there was no market for cotton prior to 18th C 17th 18th C are interrelated that continue to shape political economy well into 19th C LAND OWNERSHIP PA39ITERNS As a demand for tobacco increased more people grew tobacco More people growing prices go down To stay pro table farmers need to grow a lot amp need more land SLAVERY Way to cut labor costs Why does the South s agricultural economy shift from tobacco to cotton in early 19th C Reasons 1 Growing tobacco is ecologically intensive depletes soil a Most Southern tobacco plantations couldn t grow enough cotton to be pro table 2 Processing cotton in 18th C was time consuming amp required a great deal of labor a Dif cult to run pro table economy i Changes in 1794 Eli Whitney invents cotton gin 3 British technological advances amp changes in labor system transformed way cotton becomes cloth a Beginning of Industrial Revolution King Cotton Slavery amp The Political Economy of the South Day 3 1816 b Emerging textile industry made cotton clothing cheaper more readily available amp demand for cotton soared Britain became cotton economy i By 1865 25 of British people worked in cotton textiles Planting cotton amp not tobacco made planters fabulously wealthy Southern Cotton Production By the Numbers South originally was 1st place on earth naturally suited to cotton farming Cotton US main export just like oil in the 21st C for Middle East Expanding Slavery Cotton amp Coercive Labor S planters shifted to cotton but LAND OWNERSHIP patterns amp LABOR SYSTEMS of tobacco economy not only remained in place but became more fully entrenched in the South s economic system Most distinctive feature of 19th C South was that it was 1st slave society capable of REPLICATING ITSELF By 1860 4 million slaves in USA Worth approx 35 billion 75 billion today Slaves as nancial assets were worth more than all of America s manufacturing factories railroads amp canals combined The Culture of Southern Slavery Would 19th C Southerners Have Accepted a Different Labor System slave ownership was expensive immigration increased in 18205 1830s amp was often cheaper than slave labor Human actions cannot be fully explained by economic laws amp relationships culture matters The South39s Slave Society The Cultural amp Social Dimensions of Southern Slavery 19th C South became a SLAVE SOCIETY society in which relationship between capital amp labor is predominantly de ned by slavery South s SLAVE SOCIETY rested on assumptions about moral amp social bene ts on society Assumptions 1 Hierarchies including racial hierarchies are part of human condition I King Cotton Slavery amp The Political Economy of the South Day 3 1816 To try amp undo these hierarchies is to invite anarchy amp disorder into a society 2 African people are racially inferior amp biologicaly un t for freedom People of African decent are not just biologically suited to slavery they actually thrive under it 3 Slavery is benevolent Because Africans are uncivilized slavery benefits African people by introducing them to Christianity amp teaching them the values of hard work amp discipline The Culture of Southern Slavery Was American Slavery Dying in the 19th C NO Southern planters were economically socially politically amp culturally committed to keeping slavery in place Slavery wasn t dying it was rapidly expanding
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