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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camah Whitacre on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Emporia State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Name: Camah Whitacre Chapter 4 Homework Assignment Describe how humans see light using terms such as wavelength, amplitude, hue, intensity, and saturation What humans see is based on a mixture of wavelengths (Distance between peaks of a wave) and their amplitude (Height) that vary by hue (Colors of the spectrum), intensity (Brightness), and saturation (Colorfulness, or density). Describe the following structures of the eye: Sclera: Is the white outer surface of the eye. Cornea: Is the clear layer that covers the front portion of the eye and also contributes to the eyes ability to focus. Pupil: Regulates the amount of light that enters by changing its size; it dilates to allow more light to enter and constricts to allow less light into the eye. Iris: It is actually a round muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil it also gives the eyes their characteristic color. Lens: A clear structure that focuses light onto the back of the eye. Retina (include descriptions of cones and rods here too): Lines the inner surface of the eye and consists of specialized receptors that absorb light and send signals related to the properties of light to the brain. The specialized receptors of the retina are called photoreceptors. Two general types of photoreceptors lone the retina --- rods and cones --- each of which responds to different of light. Cones are photoreceptors that are sensitive to the different wavelengths of light that we perceive as color. Rods are photoreceptors that occupy peripheral regions of the retina; they are highly sensitive under low light level. Fovea: Is the central region of the retina that contains the highest concentration of cones. Optic nerve: A cluster of neurons that gather sensory information, exit at the back of the eye, and connect with the brain. Tell me how light travels through the eye and to the occipital lobe. Include all structures that the light must travel through. Light must travel through the sclera (white part of the eye), the cornea (the clear part of the eye and helps the eye’s ability to focus), pupil (regulates the amount of light that enters), lens (focuses light onto the back of the eye). The light then travels to the retina (inner surface of the eye that has specialized receptors to absorb light), and the fovea (where light rays are most sharply focused) to the optic nerve (transmits impulses from the retina to the visual centers of the brain). What is the difference between monocular and binocular cues? A monocular cue is the distance can see with one eye while a binocular cues is the distance can see with two eyes. Describe the two theories of color perception from your book. Trichromatic theory (or Young-Helmholtz theory) maintains that color vision is determined by the different cone types that are sensitive to short, medium, and long wavelengths of light. Opponent-process theory which states that we perceive color in terms of opposite ends of the spectrum: red to green, yellow to blue, and white to black. Describe the following structures of the ear: Pinna: Flexible outer flap of the ear, which channels sound waves into the ear canal Auditory canal: Conducts sound waves to the eardrum Eardrum: Membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves Ossicles (include the names of the 3 bones): The three bones of the middle of the ear: hammer, anvil, and stirrup. Cochlea: A fluid-filled membrane that is coiled in a snail-like shape and contains the structures that convert sound into neural impulses. Describe the two theories of pitch perception. The place theory of hearing which states that how we perceive pitch is based on the location along the basilar membrane that sound stimulates. The frequency theory is the perception of pitch is related to the frequency at which the basilar membrane vibrates. Describe the two types of hearing loss described in your book. Conduction hearing loss results when any of the physical structures that conduct sound waves to the cochlea are damaged. Sensorineural hearing loss results from damage to the cochlear hair cells (sensory) and the neurons composing the auditory nerve (neural). Define the following: Haptics: Is the active, exploratory aspect of touch sensation and perception. Kinesthesis: The sense of bodily motion and position. Nociception: Is the activity of nerve pathways that respond to uncomfortable stimulation. What is the gate-control theory? Explains our experience of pain as an interaction between nerves that transmit pain messages and those that inhabit these messages. Describe the process of how humans taste. What structures do we use? What is the name of our taste receptors? We use are tongue and taste buds to taste. Taste buds are our taste receptors. What are the olfactory receptors called? Cilia Does your olfactory system affect your gustatory system? If so, how? Yes because our olfactory system has to do with smell and if your smell is off than it affects your taste which is the gustatory system like when you get sick and can’t smell so you nothing taste right.
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