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Week 1 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Week 1 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

Introduction to a prevention-focused model of behavior support, proactive management, and self-monitoring
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Positive Behavior Chapter 1 Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Week  1  Notes   Introduction  to  Prevention-­‐Focused  Model  of  Behavior  Support     Learning  Outcomes:   1.   Articulate  The  “Causes”  of  Misbehavior  Prevention  and  the  Academic-­‐Social  Behavior   Connection   2.   Explain  the  Three-­‐Tiered  Approach  to  Proactive  Management     Lane,  Oakes,  Cox  Article  Notes:   The  following  are  paraphrased  notes  from  the  required  article.   Lane,  K.,  Oakes,  W.,  &  Cox,  M.  (2011).  Functional  assessment-­‐based  interventions:  A  university-­‐   district  partnership  to  promote  learning  and  success.  Beyond  Behavior,  20(3),  3-­‐18.     Strategies/Practices  to  better  support  struggling  students   •   Modification  to  how  we  deliver  instruction  or  manage  behavior  for  entire  class   •   Implementing  self-­‐monitoring  interventions   •   Behavioral  contracts     •   Functional  assessment-­‐based  interventions     Interventions  targeting  function  or  purpose  of  behavior  are  more  likely  to  produce  behavioral   change     Three-­‐tired  model  of  prevention   •   School-­‐site  leadership  teams  consider  data  from  multiple  sources  to  determine  which   students  require  additional  support   •   Three  levels  of  prevention:  primary  (tier  1),  secondary  (tier  2),  tertiary  (tier  3)   •   Primary:  focuses  on  preventing  harm  from  occurring   o   Done  through  school-­‐wide  instruction   •   Secondary:  focus  on  reversing  harm  by  supporting  students  for  whom  primary  efforts   are  insufficient   o   Low  intensity  strategies  such  as  self-­‐monitoring  and  behavioral  contracting   o   Addressed  in  small  groups   •   Tertiary:  focuses  on  reducing  harm  by  supporting  students  with  more  intensive  concerns   characteristic  of  those  exposed  to  multiple  risk  factors   o   Often  result  of  previous  failed  attempts  or  significant,  pronounced  concern   o   Mandated  FBA  interventions   o   Required  for  students  with  drug,  weapon,  or  threatening  infractions     Reasons  for  focus  on  functional  assessment-­‐based  interventions   •   Hold  promise  for  students  whose  previous  interventions  were  insufficient   •   Mandated  for  students  with  special  circumstances   •   Need  to  develop  knowledge  base  in  applied  settings  for  at-­‐risk  students   •   Represent  approach  to  supporting  desired  behaviors  that  consider  reasons  why   behavior  occurs   •   Imperative  for  teachers  to  have  basic  understanding  of  approach  to  supporting  students   with  the  most  challenging  behaviors   •   Imperative  for  teacher  preparation  programs  to  determine  how  to  best  prepare   teachers     Overview  of  Functional  Assessment-­‐Based  Interventions   •   Focus  on  WHY  rather  than  reducing  behaviors   •   Assessment  determines  antecedent  conditions  of  behavior  and  consequences  that   maintain  the  behavior  (ABCs)   •   Teacher  interview,  student  interview,  parent  interview,  direct  observations   •   WHAT  IS  THE  FUNCTION  OF  THE  TARGETED  BEHAVIOR?   o   Access  (positive)  or  avoid  (negative)  attention,  activities,  etc.   •   Overall  goal:  teach  student  new,  functionally  equivalent  replacement  behavior  to  still   meet  his/her  needs   •   Example  core  intervention  components:  accurate  measurement  of  target  and   replacement  behaviors,  how  well  the  plan  was  originally  designed,  consumer  feedback,   input  on  how  behaviors  are  maintained  over  time  and  to  new  settings     Function  Matrix   •   Developed  to  provide  a  structure  for  organizing  and  analyzing  functional  assessment   data   •   Contains  sources  of  reinforcement  and  types  of  reinforcement  for  each  source   •   Can  be  used  for  all  3  interviews  and  observations   •   Used  in  conjunction  with  other  individuals’  function  matrix  to  determine     o    What  was  being  accessed  or  avoided   o   number  of  each  instance   •   collective  data  from  this  can  be  examined  to  determine  reason  why  behavior  is   occurring     Decision  Model   •   used  to  assist  in  intervention  design  process   •   involves  two  questions:   o   is  the  replacement  skill  in  the  student’s  repertoire?   o   Does  the  classroom  environment  represent  effective  practices  for  the  student?     •   Possible  intervention  methods:   o   Teach  the  replacement  behavior:  use  when  student  is  not  able  to  perform  due  to   an  acquisition  deficit  and  classroom  offers  effective  practice  (can’t  do)   o   Improve  the  environment:  used  when  student  can  perform  behavior  but  chooses   not  to  as  result  of  performance  deficit  (won’t  do)  and  classroom  is  not  optimal   o   Adjust  the  contingencies:  used  when  student  is  capable  of  performing  and   antecedent  conditions  foster  effective  practice     Keys  to  success  with  this  model   •   Practice  is  operationally  defined   •   Context  and  associated  outcomes  are  clearly  defined   •   Treatment  integrity  is  addressed   •   Functional  relation  between  intervention  procedures  and  changes  in  student  behavior  is   established   •   Experimental  effects  are  replicated  across  at  least  five  studies  by  3  different  researchers   in  3  different  locales     ARE  Intervention   •   Antecedent  adjustments:  changes  to  classroom  setting  or  instruction   •   Reinforcement  adjustments:  provide  more  and  specific  reinforcement  for  new  behavior   •   Extinction  of  target  behavior:  brief,  verbal  reminder  about  what  he/she  is  supposed  to   be  doing  without  engaging  in  argument     Chapter  1  Notes:     The  following  are  direct  quotes  I  considered  to  be  of  importance  from  our  textbook.   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Introduction  to  a  Prevention-­‐Focused  Model  of  Behavior     Support.  In  Managing  classroom  behavior  using  positive  behavior  supports.  Boston:     Pearson.   •    bullying,  noncompliance  to  adult  requests,  defiance,  and  arguing  are  far  more  common   and—because  they  occur  so  often—are  more  disruptive  to  the  learning  environment   •   Many  advocate  the  use  of  strategies  perceived  as  punishing,  such  as  detention  or   suspension;  or  moving  such  students  to  a  new  setting—either  a  separate  classroom  or  a   separate  school—where  they  cannot  negatively  affect  the  learning  of  others;  or  a   combination  of  these  strategies.  Recently,   •   such  measures  are  ineffective  and  often  counterproductive;   •   focusing  on  responding  to  students  with  the  most  challenging  behavior  in  a  reactionary   manner  is  like  plugging  a  hole  in  a  dam  with  your  finger:   •   students  known  to  frequently  exhibit  problem  behavior  are  responded  to  more   negatively  by  adults—even   •   students  tend  to  live  up,  or  down,  to  the  teacher’s  expectations,   •   those  who  look  different  or  whom  teachers  expect  to  have  problems  are  more  likely  to   receive  harsh  punishment  and  suspension   •   characteristics  of  children’s  homes  and  communities  constitute  the  earliest  indicators  of   potential  academic  and  social  failure.   •   Studies  of  factors  associated  with  school  dropout  have  led  some  to  conclude  that   students  who  are  at  increased  risk  to  leave  school  prior  to  graduation  can  be  identified   at  the  time  of  birth,  based  on  their  social  class  and  family  characteristics   o   I  wonder  how  accurate  this  is   •   children  of  middle-­‐  and  upper-­‐income  families  often  come  to  school  with  1000  hours  of   exposure  to  print  material,  whereas  children  in  poverty  typically  enter  school  with  as   little  as  25  hours  of  exposure.   •   providing  a  “booster  shot”-­‐type  intervention  at  this  point  is  not  sufficient.   •   these  students  require  effective  and  intensive  instructional  strategies  throughout  the   elementary  years.   •   Children  who  struggle  to  learn  basic  foundation  skills  such  as  reading  are  significantly   more  likely  to  exhibit  behavior  problems   •   ensuring  that  all  students  receive  adequate,  evidence-­‐based  instruction  as  a  key   component  of  ensuring  student  success.   •   students  may,  for  reasons  described  earlier,  enter  school  without  the  appropriate  social   behaviors  necessary  for  facilitating  learning.  Such  behaviors  include  following  directions,   listening  to  others,  cooperating,  and  so  on.   •   Unfortunately,  these  students,  once  they  get  behind,  likely  will  continue  to  exhibit   challenging  behavior  to  avoid  the  increasingly  aversive  academic  tasks—and  will   continue  to  fall  further  and  further  behind.   o   Can  you  still  intervene?  Does  there  come  a  time  when  it  is  too  late?   •   breaking  the  cycle  of  failure.   •   What  is  needed  is  a  proactive  discipline  system—one  that  focuses  on  explicitly  teaching   expected  behavior  and  emphasizes  evidence-­‐based  strategies  to  prevent  the  occurrence   of  problem  behavior.   •   Prevention  is  less  time-­‐consuming  in  the  long  run  and  also  leads  to  more  opportunities   for  learning  and  social  engagement  because  discipline  problems  are  not  interfering  with   teaching.   •   Proactive  Management:  Using  information  about  past  behavior  to  teach  skills  and   arrange  the  environment  in  a  way  that  prevents  future  occurrence  of  the  problem.   •   Social  behavior,  however,  is  just  as  important  as  academic  behavior  and  must  be  taught   as  well.   •   schools  where  social  expectations  are  clearly  defined,  taught,  and  acknowledged,   approximately  90%  of  students  will  be  successful,  receiving  only  zero  or  one  office   referral  in  a  given  year   •   social  and  academic  behaviors  are  inextricably  linked   •   the  relation  between  academic  and  social  behavior  is  reciprocal.  Thus,  it  is  fruitless  to   focus  on  only  one  of  these  interrelated  realms.   •   needed  to  facilitate  success  in  both  academic  and  social  behavior  in  order  for  either  one   to  be  affected.   •   Proactive  management  means  using  strategies  that  prevent  behavior  problems.   •   management  needs  to  be  systemic,  encompassing  the  entire  school  day  and  every  area   within  the  school  (including  classrooms)  and  involving  all  staff  members.   •   A  proactive  management  system  is  one  that  is  created  and  implemented  by  all  in  the   system   •   Proactive  systems  typically  include  multiple  levels  or  tiers  of  intervention.   •   goal  of  a  proactive  management  system  is  to  prevent  the  occurrence  and  exacerbation   of  problem  behavior  and  to  facilitate  academic  success.   •   First,  strategies  are  developed  based  on  data-­‐based  analyses  of  recurring  problems   •   all  strategies  are  aimed  primarily  at  prevention,  with  effective  reactions  to  both  desired   and  problem  behaviors  agreed  on  and  implemented  consistently  by  all  adults  across  the   setting.   •   multiple  individuals  work  together  as  a  system  to  identify  predictors  and  develop  and   implement  interventions.   •   most  basic  of  the  three  proactive  levels  of  intervention  is  universal  prevention,   •   focus  for  social  behavior  is  on  developing  and  explicitly  teaching  rules  for  student   behavior,   •   Multitiered  Prevention  Prevention  efforts  require  a  comprehensive  and  proactive   approach,  beginning  with  universal  efforts  designed  for  all  students  in  the  system  and   progressing,  in  stages  as  necessary,  to  intensive  efforts  designed  for  students  with  the   most  significant  needs.   •   targeted  intervention,  designed  for  students  at  risk  for  more  serious  behavior  problems.   •   intensive  interventions  are  reserved  for  students  exhibiting  significant  challenges  who   do  not  respond  to  universal  or  targeted  interventions.     Db  Post   Directions   For  this  post,  write  2-­‐3  sentences  about  how  positive  reinforcement  works  in  your  daily  life.     Positive  reinforcement:   •   Any  action  that  happens  after  a  behavior  to  make  it  more  likely  to  happen  in  the  future  


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