Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes SPED 7007
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Week 1 Notes Introduction to Prevention-‐Focused Model of Behavior Support Learning Outcomes: 1. Articulate The “Causes” of Misbehavior Prevention and the Academic-‐Social Behavior Connection 2. Explain the Three-‐Tiered Approach to Proactive Management Lane, Oakes, Cox Article Notes: The following are paraphrased notes from the required article. Lane, K., Oakes, W., & Cox, M. (2011). Functional assessment-‐based interventions: A university-‐ district partnership to promote learning and success. Beyond Behavior, 20(3), 3-‐18. Strategies/Practices to better support struggling students • Modification to how we deliver instruction or manage behavior for entire class • Implementing self-‐monitoring interventions • Behavioral contracts • Functional assessment-‐based interventions Interventions targeting function or purpose of behavior are more likely to produce behavioral change Three-‐tired model of prevention • School-‐site leadership teams consider data from multiple sources to determine which students require additional support • Three levels of prevention: primary (tier 1), secondary (tier 2), tertiary (tier 3) • Primary: focuses on preventing harm from occurring o Done through school-‐wide instruction • Secondary: focus on reversing harm by supporting students for whom primary efforts are insufficient o Low intensity strategies such as self-‐monitoring and behavioral contracting o Addressed in small groups • Tertiary: focuses on reducing harm by supporting students with more intensive concerns characteristic of those exposed to multiple risk factors o Often result of previous failed attempts or significant, pronounced concern o Mandated FBA interventions o Required for students with drug, weapon, or threatening infractions Reasons for focus on functional assessment-‐based interventions • Hold promise for students whose previous interventions were insufficient • Mandated for students with special circumstances • Need to develop knowledge base in applied settings for at-‐risk students • Represent approach to supporting desired behaviors that consider reasons why behavior occurs • Imperative for teachers to have basic understanding of approach to supporting students with the most challenging behaviors • Imperative for teacher preparation programs to determine how to best prepare teachers Overview of Functional Assessment-‐Based Interventions • Focus on WHY rather than reducing behaviors • Assessment determines antecedent conditions of behavior and consequences that maintain the behavior (ABCs) • Teacher interview, student interview, parent interview, direct observations • WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE TARGETED BEHAVIOR? o Access (positive) or avoid (negative) attention, activities, etc. • Overall goal: teach student new, functionally equivalent replacement behavior to still meet his/her needs • Example core intervention components: accurate measurement of target and replacement behaviors, how well the plan was originally designed, consumer feedback, input on how behaviors are maintained over time and to new settings Function Matrix • Developed to provide a structure for organizing and analyzing functional assessment data • Contains sources of reinforcement and types of reinforcement for each source • Can be used for all 3 interviews and observations • Used in conjunction with other individuals’ function matrix to determine o What was being accessed or avoided o number of each instance • collective data from this can be examined to determine reason why behavior is occurring Decision Model • used to assist in intervention design process • involves two questions: o is the replacement skill in the student’s repertoire? o Does the classroom environment represent effective practices for the student? • Possible intervention methods: o Teach the replacement behavior: use when student is not able to perform due to an acquisition deficit and classroom offers effective practice (can’t do) o Improve the environment: used when student can perform behavior but chooses not to as result of performance deficit (won’t do) and classroom is not optimal o Adjust the contingencies: used when student is capable of performing and antecedent conditions foster effective practice Keys to success with this model • Practice is operationally defined • Context and associated outcomes are clearly defined • Treatment integrity is addressed • Functional relation between intervention procedures and changes in student behavior is established • Experimental effects are replicated across at least five studies by 3 different researchers in 3 different locales ARE Intervention • Antecedent adjustments: changes to classroom setting or instruction • Reinforcement adjustments: provide more and specific reinforcement for new behavior • Extinction of target behavior: brief, verbal reminder about what he/she is supposed to be doing without engaging in argument Chapter 1 Notes: The following are direct quotes I considered to be of importance from our textbook. Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Introduction to a Prevention-‐Focused Model of Behavior Support. In Managing classroom behavior using positive behavior supports. Boston: Pearson. • bullying, noncompliance to adult requests, defiance, and arguing are far more common and—because they occur so often—are more disruptive to the learning environment • Many advocate the use of strategies perceived as punishing, such as detention or suspension; or moving such students to a new setting—either a separate classroom or a separate school—where they cannot negatively affect the learning of others; or a combination of these strategies. Recently, • such measures are ineffective and often counterproductive; • focusing on responding to students with the most challenging behavior in a reactionary manner is like plugging a hole in a dam with your finger: • students known to frequently exhibit problem behavior are responded to more negatively by adults—even • students tend to live up, or down, to the teacher’s expectations, • those who look different or whom teachers expect to have problems are more likely to receive harsh punishment and suspension • characteristics of children’s homes and communities constitute the earliest indicators of potential academic and social failure. • Studies of factors associated with school dropout have led some to conclude that students who are at increased risk to leave school prior to graduation can be identified at the time of birth, based on their social class and family characteristics o I wonder how accurate this is • children of middle-‐ and upper-‐income families often come to school with 1000 hours of exposure to print material, whereas children in poverty typically enter school with as little as 25 hours of exposure. • providing a “booster shot”-‐type intervention at this point is not sufficient. • these students require effective and intensive instructional strategies throughout the elementary years. • Children who struggle to learn basic foundation skills such as reading are significantly more likely to exhibit behavior problems • ensuring that all students receive adequate, evidence-‐based instruction as a key component of ensuring student success. • students may, for reasons described earlier, enter school without the appropriate social behaviors necessary for facilitating learning. Such behaviors include following directions, listening to others, cooperating, and so on. • Unfortunately, these students, once they get behind, likely will continue to exhibit challenging behavior to avoid the increasingly aversive academic tasks—and will continue to fall further and further behind. o Can you still intervene? Does there come a time when it is too late? • breaking the cycle of failure. • What is needed is a proactive discipline system—one that focuses on explicitly teaching expected behavior and emphasizes evidence-‐based strategies to prevent the occurrence of problem behavior. • Prevention is less time-‐consuming in the long run and also leads to more opportunities for learning and social engagement because discipline problems are not interfering with teaching. • Proactive Management: Using information about past behavior to teach skills and arrange the environment in a way that prevents future occurrence of the problem. • Social behavior, however, is just as important as academic behavior and must be taught as well. • schools where social expectations are clearly defined, taught, and acknowledged, approximately 90% of students will be successful, receiving only zero or one office referral in a given year • social and academic behaviors are inextricably linked • the relation between academic and social behavior is reciprocal. Thus, it is fruitless to focus on only one of these interrelated realms. • needed to facilitate success in both academic and social behavior in order for either one to be affected. • Proactive management means using strategies that prevent behavior problems. • management needs to be systemic, encompassing the entire school day and every area within the school (including classrooms) and involving all staff members. • A proactive management system is one that is created and implemented by all in the system • Proactive systems typically include multiple levels or tiers of intervention. • goal of a proactive management system is to prevent the occurrence and exacerbation of problem behavior and to facilitate academic success. • First, strategies are developed based on data-‐based analyses of recurring problems • all strategies are aimed primarily at prevention, with effective reactions to both desired and problem behaviors agreed on and implemented consistently by all adults across the setting. • multiple individuals work together as a system to identify predictors and develop and implement interventions. • most basic of the three proactive levels of intervention is universal prevention, • focus for social behavior is on developing and explicitly teaching rules for student behavior, • Multitiered Prevention Prevention efforts require a comprehensive and proactive approach, beginning with universal efforts designed for all students in the system and progressing, in stages as necessary, to intensive efforts designed for students with the most significant needs. • targeted intervention, designed for students at risk for more serious behavior problems. • intensive interventions are reserved for students exhibiting significant challenges who do not respond to universal or targeted interventions. Db Post Directions For this post, write 2-‐3 sentences about how positive reinforcement works in your daily life. Positive reinforcement: • Any action that happens after a behavior to make it more likely to happen in the future
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