Psych 367 (Health Psychology)
Psych 367 (Health Psychology) PSY 355
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Health Psychology Notes What is health psychology? o The application of psychological principles and research to the enhancement of health and the prevention/treatment of illness o What are health psychologists study? Branch of psychology that focuses on how mental, emotional and social factors affect a person’s physical wellbeing o Division 38 was formed in 1978 o Apply principles and theories of psychology to physical health How do conditions such as anxiety & depression influence physical health? o Although formed in ’78, physical health not officially recognized as outcome until 2001 Why? Because no empirical data from longitudinal studies World Health Organization’s definition of health (1948)- health is a complete state of well-being that includes physical health, psychological/mental health, and social health o Not merely the absence of disease or infirmary Biopsychosocial model- AKA “systems approach”, says there are biological, psychological, & social factors to health 3 broad questions: o How do people stay healthy? (newest question) o Why do people become ill? o How do people behave when they become ill? (oldest) Focus: Chronic Illnesses (CIs) o What are CIs? A disease that has a long duration, can be managed but not cured, can be severe, has warning signs, slow developing o Examples: heart disease, HIV, cancer, diabetes o Non-deterministic CIs: diseases that have biological bases, psychological & social factors can interact w/biological bases to influence both CAUSE & ADJUSTMENT Just because someone has a biological base, does not mean they WILL develop the disease o Behavior is a huge factor The mind & body: connected vs not connected o Stone age: What caused illness? “evil spirits” invaded mind and then the body would fail as a result How was it cured? Trephination (drill a hole in the head/skull to release “evil spirits”) Focus mind o Ancient Greeks & Romans Hippocrates What caused illness? Humoral theory- 4 humors (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm); off- balance of 4 fluids cause illness How does this compare to Stone age? More scientific Focus body o Middle ages What caused illness? God’s wrath Church dominated society not allowed to dissect bodies How is illness treated/cured? Praying, become a good Christian, ask God for forgiveness o Renaissance Dominated by science and medicine What caused illness? THE BODY Two key figures Vesalius o Physician (father of human anatomy), published volume of anatomical drawings based on several dissections on human bodies Descartes o Philosopher o Separation of mind & body (dualism) o Mind was not governed by laws of nature & only humans have minds o Post-Renaissance Ideas of Renaissance progressed & flourished Inventions (microscope); scientific advances (autopsy, X-ray, anesthesia) Body is cause of illness, mind is ignored What was seen as fundamental basis for diagnosis & treatment of illness? Biomedical model o Early to mid 1900s some began to question biology as sole basis for illness Rise of psychiatrists; mind possibly causes illness Sigmund Freud: Linked repressed internal conflicts to physical problems/illness Conversion hysteria conflicts in mind manifest as physical problem Events from past influence current problems Psychoanalysis Flanders Dunbar & Franz Alexander Linked personality to specific illness Ex) the “ulcer-prone personality” Psychosomatic Medicine o Somatoform disorders What are they? Physical diseases could develop SOLEY from psychological issues Examples: ulcers, hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, hypertension The case of Helicobacter pylori- bacteria in GI tract causes 80% of ulcers but only 4/5 people with the bacteria don’t develop the ulcers (stress could be a factor in ulcer development) o Psychosomatic disorders Disease in which psychological factors play a significant cause in development Two models o Biopsychosocial model- health & illness are consequence of psychological, social and biological factors o Biomedical model- all illness can be explained on basis of bodily processes; little regard for psychological & social factors Example o The biopsychosocial model: Imagine a researcher who is interested in developing an intervention (AKA experiment) to improve healthy eating Consider all of the factors that influence people’s eating behaviors Biological factors- metabolism, genetic factors (super tasters) Psychological factors- body image, emotions, clinical diagnoses, distraction Social factors- childhood eating habits, learn from parents, attitudes, food associations, social setting, cost, location Experiments o The best way to test research questions Why? Able to control for confounding/extraneous factors can establish cause & effect o Independent variable: variable that researcher manipulates/changes, can have 1 or 2 independent variables o Dependent variable: variable researcher measures o Experimental vs control group: Experimental group- group of people in experiment that are given the independent variable Control group- group of people in experiment that are not given independent variable and are used as comparison to experimental group o Random assignment is KEY Each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental & control groups Assures that differences among participants will be equally distributed across groups If you observe a difference after IV (independent variable), means it is due to IV Randomized Controlled (or Randomized Clinical) Trials “RTC” How do they differ from laboratory experiments? o Measure variables over times (prospective) o Always include baseline assessment Can test within-subjects & between-subjects differences Follow the same subjects closely over time, usually lengthy period They are assessed at baseline & then multiple points after All aspects of participation are the same for different groups, EXCEPT IV May be blinded in different ways: o Single blind- only participant doesn’t know if they’re part of experimental/control group o Double blind- both researcher & participant don’t know who is in experimental/control group
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