Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes CC 205 1
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Miller on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CC 205 1 at Ball State University taught by King in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Mythologies of the World in Classical Studies at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Flood Myths 2nd reading Wednesday, January 13, 2016 6:10 PM Greek Myth Zeus and Lycaon and the wickedness of mortals Zeus (Jupiter) hears rumors that mankind was very wicked He disguised himself as a man and came down among them Greeks practiced hospitality He witnessed Lycaon (a tyrant) commit murder and cannibalism He fed the person to Zeus Zeus turns Lycaon into a wolf and decided to flood the earth Etiologies of the wolf Testing and offending the gods brings punishment Iris (messenger god) and Neptune (God of the sea) helped with the flood Those who were not killed died of starvation Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha were saved from the flood In a small boat That ended up in the mountains where Dephi is later located Doesn’t give a time period for the flood Deucalion and his wife wept over the loss of every other human They went to the temple and prayed to the goddess Themis (goddess of justice) Deucalion made a sacrifice The goddess ordered "Go away from my temple, cover your heads and unloose the fastenings of your garments, and toss the bones of the great mother behind your back" This was interpreted into the mother being earth and stones being her bones Understanding the riddles of gods brings success The stones thrown over their back transformed in to human beings "Hence we are a hard race and used to toils and offer proof of the origin from which we were sprung" Emphasis on the Gods working together Greeks are considered older and different than all other humans - etiologies of different human races Deucalion and Pyrrha is also had their own son, Hellen (Greeks are called Hellas) Indian: Manu Only Manu is saved from the flood A fish (avatar of Vishnu) swam into his hands and told him to raise him then let him into the ocean He also spoke of the great flood and told him to build a boat Once the flood came the fish returned and lead Manu to a mountain A rope was tied to a tree and Manu slowly descended the mountain This myth is used to explain a slope of the northern mountain call "Manu's descent" The myth doesn't talk about a God Manu makes the first laws A woman is created for him Manu becomes the ancestor of all Indian Kings The flood myth was as entertainment Origin story of human institutions Mayan: the Popol-vuh This is a creation story The flood is used to erase a mistake rather than punish sins First god made the earth, then animals then men out of mud, then men out of wood He sent the flood because the wooden men forgot his name and weren't good enough A few escaped and their descendants are the monkeys Shows God as kinda selfish God made the sun and the moon Four men were mad out of corn meal and liqueur Then four wives were made for them God thought they were too smart and shouldn't be able to see and know everything so he blew a mist into their eyes and clouded their vision so they could only see what was right in front of them The people went and lived in the mountains They burned incents for the sun to rise and when it did they were happy This myth explains why people don’t know everything about the world Complicated recipe for humanity Grateful humanity: happy ending It explains why we are here Gives an explanation for why monkeys are similar to humans China: Yu Shu ching in the Chou Dynasty - 1000 BCE Gives gods a non-mystical sense Emphasis on human agency Kun was called to stop the flood after 9 years of failure he was executed Yu (his son) took over Yu the hero, chosen by the supreme deity to resist the flood He was considered selfless for not visiting his home while working on relieving the flood waters Primarily used barricades to channel the water into the sea: ingenuity He also called upon mythical creatures such as Yinglong (responding dragon) Emphasizes the importance of calling on different gods when in need of help He destroyed and imprisoned many monsters and evils on his journey Yu was identified by some scholars as a Supreme Deity He worked for 13 years to control the flood and as result the earth was left dry Yu get married Yu turns into a bear and his wife turns into a stone He was seen as the father of the first emperor - etiology of China's emperorship The baby came out of the rock The flood as hero's conflict Mythologies of the World Day 1 Tuesday, November 24, 2015 9:37 AM Myth Stories (narratives) Told over and over by a specific people (become common knowledge) Explain something in the past Entertaining and interesting Super human characters (heroic figures) - not normal Generally struggles with some type of adversity Believed for a period of time - characterize a bounded culture Generally when the myth dies so does the culture Doesn’t mean that the myths are forgotten just no longer believed Myth underlies and utilizes a culture (enduring tradition) Inform a group of people about themselves and their place in the world May in fact be factual Belief defines myth Monsters They do not necessarily have a story like a myth does Primarily just described Star Wars Based on mythology Heroin on a quest It is not widely believed to have actually happened It doesn’t explain any phenomenon that we know of in our world Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection Narrative that explains something Makes nature and natural selection "super" in controlling how life is today Widely believed It could be falsified if evidence was found against it unlike normal myths Washington crossing the Delaware Underdog coming out on top Exciting, treacherous journey Completing a seemingly deathly accomplishment It was in 1776 which is decently recent so it is not really counted as a myth It was all accounted for by people who were there Something so brave and noble is used to capture the essence and character of America and gave the people hope in a time of doubt Classical mythology by morford, lendardon, and Sham (MLS) 10th or 9th addition The World of myth by Davide Adams and Leeming (Leeming) 1st additon Myths are etiologies - the origins of certain phenomenon Flood Myths 1st reading Tuesday, January 12, 2016 4:14 PM Mesopotamia (Babylonian) flood 2000s BC Told by Utnapishtim to Gilgamesh then is written in the epic of Gilgamesh "a secret": distance between the gods and humanity The gods were unknown and unknowable They are divided, arbitrary and mysterious Some care about humanity Most are either indifferent or hostile to human Only immortals can know the matters of the gods Came first The people had many gods - each had divided functions The great flood was the result of a whim of the Gods Enlil or Ellil (a God) was mad that there were too many people in the world so he devised a plan to make a flood to kill them all The other gods were terrified and sad when the flood began Ea is the trickster God - he sent a message to Utnapishtim in a dream to build a boat. The boat only took 7 days to build The story goes on and on about the precious metals that were on the boat It was filled with animals, the mans family, and the crafts people who helped build the boat The flood lasted 6 days and 7 nights A swallow, a raven and a dove were sent out to find land The boat ended up being anchored to a mountain A sacrifice was made to all the gods besides Enlil. They are compared to flies being drawn to the sacrifice This hints that the gods were seen as greedy, thoughtless, and out for their own good The Mesopotamian people did not respect their gods Enlil vs Ea: Utnapishtim and his wife are made immortal Israel (Hebrew): Noah It is clearly based on the older Babylonian one but it emphasizes the idea of humanity's sinfulness Yahweh regrets creating humanity The flood is a punishment Noah is saved by Elohim for righteousness and nonviolence so that humankind can be reborn in a cleansed state It is harsh but constructive Elohim commands for one pair of each kind of animal Yahweh commands seven pairs of each clean kind and one pair of each unclean kind - only clean animals can be sacrificed Yahweh sends the rain. This flood lasted 40 days and 40 nights Elohim states that rains come over the earth for 150 days A raven and a dove were sent out to see if there was land three times Once the water drained the arch was on a mountain Noah sacrifices (One of each animal was sacrificed) Elohim commands Noah to be fruitful and multiply Permits the eating of meat Enacts the death penalty Creates a rainbow to symbolize covenant Common Pattern Powerful male god decides to destroy humanity All of humanity is destroyed in the flood Except for a particularly pious man and his family are saved in a board The boat comes down onto a mountain There is a sacrifice made to the gods The earth is repopulated by the survivors Myths Mythologies of the world Wednesday, January 13, 2016 10:04 AM Flood myth occurs in over 100 cultures all over the world Do myths show what cultures have in common? Or the differences What do myths do? Different versions of myths emphasize different aspects of gods and events The 1990 version makes the gods sound selfish and arbitrary by giving the reason for the flood The newer version doesn’t tell the reason which makes the gods seem mysterious Ancient Mesopotamian Culture Sumeria: the first civilization Rivers and irrigation Tigeras and Euphrates Cities with temples and 3000x BS: Uruk and Gilgamesh Writing and religion Empires emerge (2300s) Akkad conquers the individual cities and rules over them all Translates the stories into their own language Ancient Israelite culture (12000 BC) They were not significant in their time Very small mountain people Rarely appear in documents of the time Poor herders (rather than farmers and craftsmen), disunified (12 tribes) Hebrew language Worshipped Yahweh (or Elohim) Greek Culture Mythologies of the world Friday, January 15, 2016 11:07 AM Ancient Greek Culture Greek Civilization (Mycenaean) emerged by 1600 BC This civilization was destroyed 1200-1100 BC No art or political control elsewhere For 300 years there isn't much evidence of them Classical Greece reemerged 800-700 BC Mycenaean civilization was the subject of Greek myths Greece had 1000 + city-states Unified by language, customs, gods, and temples, not politics and identity (Athenian or Spartan) Each city-state had its own myths